” The writer HG Wells builds his time machine and travels to the past with Humphrey Bogart and Groucho Marx, getting to know Mata Hari, Picasso, Al Capone and discovering the treasures hidden in the tomb of Tutankhamun .”
This is the fictional story of a dreamer, the brilliant HG Wells, the first known writer who dared to speak of a time machine, in his work ” The Time Machine “, published in 1895, which, according to Wells, could provide more benefits to Humanity than any other invention.
Herbert George Wells was born in 1866 in Bromley, Kent (England), and over the years he became a popular author and political philosopher, especially for his science fiction novels that contain prophetic descriptions of the triumphs of technology, as well as the horrors of twentieth-century wars.
In an interview, HG Wells explained the technical details that led to the construction of that alleged time machine. His enthusiasm was already contagious and he did not even wait for confirmation to be believed.
“If you have read my novel The Time Machine ” – he began to explain –
“you will know that although I speak of the fourth dimension as a place of space-time that can be reached easily.
I do not explain how it can be achieved, nor do I mention technical details about the time machine. I simply describe the invention as a vehicle equipped with a chair, a very simple control panel, a wheel that is the motor that moves us in time and a strange crystal that is supposed to provide the necessary energy. But I do not explain any scientific data, since it is pure fiction to travel to the future .”
“Then,” the interviewer asked, “what is the difference with the machine that you now claim to have built?”
“It’s about traveling to the past” – answered Wells– “to a place that already existed and whose physical presence circulates somewhere in the universe. The future is not written, that is true, or possibly it is, but the past is perfectly described and about the events that occurred a few years ago we have photographs and recordings. Simply looking at a photograph we are already making a visual journey into the past.”
“But the physical element would be missing – the interviewer asked again -, the one that would allow us to get back to that time “.
“Think for a moment about what a photograph is – answered Wells-: a moment in the past that has been stopped forever. From the moment that photograph was impressed, the future began, but we have already managed to stop that moment for a second, which we now consider the past.
When I began to think about what would be the way to be able to become part of that real visual element, a crazy idea occurred to me, well, then I considered it that way, but it took me one step further from time travel“.
According to Nexus Magazine: “Dr. Nikola Tesla was considered one of the most well-known people on Earth. Today it has disappeared from our scientific books and textbooks.
What did he discover, and why he fell into oblivion? ”
The Scientific Information and News Service(SINC), a public agency specialized in information on science, technology and innovation in Spanish, explained that some files belonging to Nikola Tesla were declassified.
They were found in Room 3327 of the New Yorker Hotel, after the death of Nikola Tesla on January 7, 1943. The content of this material has surprised the experts.
It is also surprising that part of that information was in a mysterious VHS tape, especially if we consider that VHS tapes were not invented until the 1970s, some 30 years after the death of Tesla.
VHS, initials of Video Home System was a popular domestic system of analog video recording and reproduction in a magnetic tape system, which was the most used and popular system since its appearance until the 1990s, at the end of the 20th century, when it was replaced by the appearance of DVD.
Nikola Tesla was one of the greatest geniuses of the late nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. Much of the technology we know has been possible thanks to this incredible inventor.
According to Margaret Cheney, in her book Tesla Man Out of Time: “Today few remember Nikola Tesla, but thanks to him we listen to the radio and turn on the light bulb when we press a switch.
He was the inventor of alternating current, and also the father of visionary technologies in his time such as robotics, computer science or remote-controlled weapons.
Tesla worked for Edison, with whom he ended up facing in the “war of the currents” (alternates against continuous), and enjoyed the patronage of men like Westinghouse or JP Morgan, who created their empires thanks in part to the discoveries of Tesla.
Nikola Tesla is the paradigm of the great inventor, but denied for practical life, full of hobbies, compulsions and phobias. And his life is the story of a flash of light that continues to shine, with the tribute of those who recognize him as “the father of modern technology.” In 1943,”
All his scientific assertions had the support of experiments that Tesla himself had made. All the gadgets he presented were new, designed by him and, usually, manufactured in his own workshop. And very rarely did he repeat an experiment in a talk.
As for the inappropriate scientific terminology of his time, we must clarify that the slight discharge of electricity inside a tube in which the vacuum was made, what he described as a brush stroke, was nothing but a beam of electrons and of ionized gas molecules.
It would never have occurred to him to say something like “and now I ‘m going to describe the cyclotron“, because the term had not been coined yet.
But, according to the experts, from the words and experiments that accompanied them, it could well be thought that it referred to an ancestor of the particle accelerator.
Nor did he talk about “electron microscopes, cosmic rays, vacuum tube radios, or X-rays.” When he described one of those vacuum lamps that in the future would be considered as precursors of the radio, they spoke of radio receivers, a technique still newborn.
When he commented on the jumbled images of photographic plates he had obtained in the laboratory, or referred to visible or invisible light, not even Roentgen knew what X-rays were and what their usefulness would be.
And when Tesla got a flame that, according to his own words, “it burned without fuel and did not cause chemical reactions , “he was probably presenting an antecedent of what we now know as plasma physics. “I present a new approach to phenomena that, until now, we considered as wonderful and lacking in explanation,” he said in the American Institute of American Engineers.
Tesla spoke of the mysterious fascination of electricity and magnetism, that “with its seemingly dual behavior, unique among the forces of nature with its phenomena of attraction, repulsion and rotation, seem unknown manifestations of mysterious agents“.
Andrew Basiago, former volunteer of a supposed secret project of time travel, claims to have traveled on more than one occasion to Mars, which was already inhabited by humans. Although many may sound like science fiction, Basiago relates that his father was a CIA scientist, and as such, he had access to a series of secret projects of the North American Ministry of Defense.
In 1967, at the young age of six, he was driven by his father to building 68 in the old complex of the Curtiss-Wright aeronautical company in Woodbridge, New Jersey.
There Basiago was recruited to travel through time and space in a project called Pegaso. According to him, this initiative used psychic children, basically because they were better than adults to adapt to the psychological consequences of space-time travel.
In training, devices called “chronovisors” were used, where they saw holographic images of both the past and the future of different timelines.
According to this surprising story, they were made to travel to different subterranean secret bases using teleportation, whose science is based on the studies made by Nikola Tesla, who would have made an apparatus that extracts radiant energy from the space-time continuum.
The radiant energy, according to Tesla, is the one that predominates in the Universe.
According to Andrew Basiago, the purpose of time travel was to recover objects from the past and the future that allowed us to use important knowledge.
From Tesla’s own writings we can see that he had a unique mental capacity, which few of his human counterparts have ever been able to reach. No wonder that when Tesla was confronted with an event as shocking as the revelation that humans might not be alone in the universe, he confronted it.
The atypical way in which he faced and dealt with the unknown has led some to speculate that his true origin may have originated beyond this planet.
This suggestion is not new. In fact, Tesla once confided to one of his personal assistants that he often felt as if he were a stranger in this world.
Formally, Tesla was from a family of Serbian origin. Born in the village of Smilian, Lika (Austria-Hungary), in what is now Croatia. Tesla’s father was an Orthodox priest; his mother was not literate but highly intelligent.
A dreamer and with a poetic touch, when maturing, Tesla added to these early qualities those of self-discipline and a desire for precision.
Margaret Cheney, in her book Tesla: Man Out of Time (1981), observed that Tesla, as a child, began to make original inventions. When he was five years old he built a small water wheel, quite different from the ones he had seen in the field. It was smooth, without paddles, however it rotated evenly in the stream. Years later he would remember this fact when he was designing his turbine. Some of his other experiments were less successful. Once he was up on the roof of the roof, clutching the family umbrella and hyperventilating in the cool mountain breeze, until his body felt light, and the dizziness in his head convinced him he could fly. But he fell and was unconscious. Later Tesla would write that this incident was the catalyst for his unusual visions.
Isaac Newton had imagined a universal time upon which all observers agreed and for which the ticking of a moving clock was just as fast as that of a stationary one.
Imagine the head of a command that brings together all the members of the group and says something like: “Let’s synchronize our watches. At this moment it’s 10:15“. All adjust their clocks exactly at 10:15 and then separate, relying on the Newtonian idea that, although each member of the command travels a very different path and at a different speed, everyone will reach the goal at the same time.
However, if one of them traveled in a spaceship at a speed close to that of light, the mission would be in danger. The clocks of a ship that moves with respect to us at great speed can not be synchronized with ours.
According to Einstein, universal time does not exist. The time is different for each observer.
This principle opens the door to travel in time.
One of Einstein’s first theorems derived from his two postulates goes to say that if an astronaut passed us at high speed, we would see that his clocks are moving more slowly than ours. The astronaut could use the beating of his heart as a kind of clock. Their mirrors in parallel, with a ray of light bouncing between them, and their heart are simply two clocks at rest in relation to each other, so there will be a fixed relationship between their respective rhythms.
When we observe that the astronaut moves with respect to us at 80% of the speed of light, we not only see that his light clock makes three ticks for every five of ours, but also that his heart beats more slowly in the same proportion; Which is why he will age more slowly than we do.
When we have aged five years, we will see that he will only have aged three. Biological clocks and light clocks necessarily delay in the same way. Otherwise, the astronaut could deduce that it is he who is moving, which would violate the first postulate mentioned above. These effects become more spectacular as the astronaut’s speed approaches that of light.
If the astronaut passes close to us at 99.995% of the speed of light, we will observe that his watch runs a hundred times slower. When a thousand years have elapsed on Earth, those who observe the astronaut will see that he has only aged ten!
The journey to the future is possible due to the fact that observers who move with respect to each other have different perceptions of time. These observers can disagree even on the simultaneity of the events; a phenomenon that will play an important role in understanding how a trip to the past could materialize.
It is fascinating, the idea that there may already be time travelers moving among us. These travelers would refuse to manifest themselves publicly and act as real temporary tourists or observers, without, apparently, greater interference in the affairs of current humanity. But this hypothesis would be completely unprovable.
It has been alleged, also, that certain individuals could be more or less hidden temporary travelers, mentioning among themselves notable inventors or literati. However, none of the evidence presented is convincing.
According to the supposed traveler of the time, John Titor, “Russia and the United States will face each other in a new world war. China and the European Union will be destroyed”
In the 21st century two characters have appeared who explicitly say they come from the future.
One of them called himself John Titor and said he was a 38-year-old American soldier with the mission to travel to the year 1975 from the year 2036. The objective was to collect and take to 2036 an IBM 5100 computer. The device was necessary, he said, as it would help solve a so-called Effect 2038, a problem similar to that known as Effect 2000, computer problem due to the turn of the century.
Once he got an IBM 5100 computer, Titor made a temporary stop in the year 2000 for an unspecified personal reason. However, this whole issue seems unlikely.
Among his predictions, which go from 2000 to 2037, he cited a Civil War in the United States in 2004, during the presidential elections, which would end up dividing the country into 5 different territories.
At the end of this internal war, a Third World War between Russia and the United States would be unleashed with nuclear weapons, and that would end with the end of the European Union and China.
All this, in the predicted dates, has not occurred. John Titor is the name used in several thematic discussion forums on the Internet during the years 2000 and 2001 by a user who claimed to be a time traveler of the year 2036.
In these messages he made numerous predictions, some vague and others very detailed, about events in the near future. But, inexplicably, it did not predict the attacks of September 11, 2001.
However, it predicted other events of the year 2004. However, these facts do not seem to have taken place, since it describes a future with drastic changes in which the United States would have divided into five smaller regions, in which the environment and infrastructure would have been devastated by a nuclear attack, and in which most other world powers would have been destroyed.
John Richard Gott (1947) is a professor of astrophysics at Princeton University. He graduated in Mathematics from Harvard University and obtained a Ph.D. in Physics from Princeton.
He has taught courses at the California Institute of Technology and the University of Cambridge. He has received the President’s Award for his teaching at Princeton, and has published numerous research papers in journals such as Scientific American, New Scientist and American Scientist .
Gott is an important cosmologist, known for his work on the Argument of the Last Judgment ( Doomsday Argument), the nature of time and the possibility of traveling in it.
On this subject he has written the book Time Travel in Einstein’s Universe: The Physical Possibilities of Travel Through Time, which I have used as a basis for the scientific part of this article.
Physicist and popularizer Paul Davies mentions Gott in his book How to Build a Time Machine, for his proposal to use cosmic strings to create a time machine. The Gott machine would depend on antigravity tension in the hypothetical cords, tension capable of deforming space-time, without attracting nearby objects.
The traveler would follow a very precise and fast course around them, finding in the end that he had gone back in time. Gott also proposes a “temporary mirror“, a device to travel in time based on the principle of delay.
By observing the stars in the sky, we actually see the past of the stars. The device would be located in the proximity of a black hole that was located a few hundred light years from Earth. This device would act as a light collector that would collect and reflect the rays of light deformed and curved by the powerful gravitational attraction of the black hole.
The collector would then show the past as it appeared in the old images of the Earth captured in this way. Given that Gott believes that time travel can not be excluded by relying on the principles of Cosmology, he has proposed the possibility that the universe has been created from itself. The universe could have a geometry that allows it to go back in time and create itself. The universe could be its own mother.
The scientific part of the article will probably seem somewhat complex to many of the readers.
This controversial idea was published with his collaborator, Li-Xin Lin, and described by Gott based on the hypothesis of “an inflationary universe, which could generate outbreaks of new universes similar to the branches that emerge from the trunk of a tree.”
Gott supposes that, in this case, any one of the branches could bend backwards in a loop, like the whiting that bites its tail, becoming its own origin. In his book Time Travel in Einstein’s Universe, Gott argues that traveling to the past is perfectly possible, although only at a later time than the construction of the contraption, and only, equally, during the period of its existence.
Nor could transit be made by compromising the temporal traveler’s own universe line, since Gott invokes the quantum interpretation of the parallel universes, in order to avoid the grandfather’s paradox. The book holds the trip to the future as more probable.
However, the author does not exclude that future investigations also make the trip to the past believable. Gott’s first idea about his Copernicus method, applied to historical processes, dates from 1969, year in which, on a trip to Germany, being in front of the Berlin Wall, he wondered how long it would remain standing.
Little familiar with the analysis of geopolitical futurology, he thought that the Copernican principle, also known as the mediocrity principle, was applicable to the case. In this way, he maintained that there was a 75% chance that he was contemplating the wall after the first quarter of its existence. Based on the age of the Wall on that date (8 years, in 1969), Gott calculated, with 50% reliability, that the Wall would not stand up in 1993.
Interestingly, it is known that the Wall was demolished in 1989. 1993 Gott applied the Copernican principle to estimate the likely duration of the human race.
His article in the journal Nature was the first to apply this principle to the survival of Humanity. Its original prediction grants a 95% probability that it will last between 5,100 and 7,8 million years. Gott has defended his principle of mediocrity against different criticisms of a philosophical nature, and the debate, like the one he holds about the hypothesis of the closed curve of time type, still holds.
In order to popularize his Copernican principle, Gott made predictions in The New Yorker about how long 44 theatrical productions that were being performed in New York would remain at the time. It was correct in 95% of its forecasts.
Gott has defended his 5,100 and 7,8 million years prediction against different criticisms of a philosophical nature, and the debate, like the one he holds about the hypothesis of the closed curve of time type, still holds.
Gott has received the President’s Award for Distinguished Teaching , in recognition of his work at the National Westinghouse and Intel Science Talent Search , a competition for high school science students.
Gott is an active promoter of science at these educational levels. On the other hand, Princeton students have voted him the most outstanding teacher on several occasions.
Suppose someone, for example Juana Pérez, has a time machine. He uses it to travel until 1934, and visits his grandfather, who was still single. Juana convinces him that she was, or would be, his granddaughter, telling him family secrets that he had not yet explained to anyone.
The man is amazed. But the worst came later, when he commented to his intended, the future grandmother, who had just met the granddaughter of both. It seemed to her that he must not be in his right mind. As a result of this conversation they did not get married and never had the daughter who would have been Juana’s mother.
But then, how is it possible that Juana is in front of her supposed grandfather telling her about his adventure?
NOTE: BELOW IS LESS BROKEN UP AND BEING FROM A FOREIGN TRANSLATION MAY BE HARD TO TAKE IN. GOOD LOOK!!
Suppose someone, say Jane Smith, you have a time machine. He uses it to travel to the year 1934, and visits his grandfather, who was still single. Joan convinces him that it was, or would be, her granddaughter, telling family secrets that he still had not told anyone. The man is stunned. But the worst came later, when he told his intended, future grandmother, who had just met the granddaughter of both. She thought there must have been sane.Following this conversation not married and never had a daughter who would have been the mother of Juana. But then, how is it possible that Joan is in front of his grandfather telling his adventure course. If your mother was not born, how Could she born? What we really need to ask yourself is, yes when Juana back to 1934, can abort grandparents dating or not? What is answer is answered, there will be problems of consistency. If Jane can prevent your own birth, a contradiction occurs. If not, your disability goes against common sense, for what obstaría him do what he wanted? It is generally believed that such situations, a bloodless version of the classic ” grandfather paradox “, where he is killed by his grandson, who has traced the time to do, rule out that there may be time travel. But surprisingly enough, the laws of physics prevent it. Another fairly widespread paradox is analyzed by Michael Dummett, a prominent British philosopher, Oxford. An art critic from the future to visit a painter of the twentieth century, who at the time of that has by renowned artist. But it notes that the work done up to this point in the XX is mediocre and deducts that are still inspired to paint pictures that will impress future generations. It teaches a book where they are reproduced. The artist manages to guardárselo, and the critic has to leave. The painter was then engaged in copying the reproductions on canvas, with the most scrupulous fidelity. And so: the reproductions exist because they have been removed from the tables, and the tables are because they have been removed from reproductions. There is no contradiction behind the story, but a profound mistake. We are asked to believe that there may be paintings without someone the crease. These objections have convinced physicists, who have been making a chronological principle would prevent travel through time. The one-way trip to the future no problems of that kind.
The special theory of relativity predicts that, with sufficient acceleration, astronauts might leave Earth and return after a few decades, but had aged more than a year or two. We must distinguish the predictions of this kind, which merely cause our perplexity, processes that violate the laws of physics or contradict philosophical principles. Why not travel to the past would contradict any principle? If man can ascend in a balloon against gravity, why did not expect to be able to stop or accelerate their journey through the time dimension or even traveling in the opposite direction? No proposal for science fiction has fascinated both the human being as the travel time. What would we do if we had a time machine? We could go ahead and do a tour of the XXX century and back to the present with a cure for cancer. We could go back in time and rescue a loved one, or kill Hitler and prevent the Second World War, or buy a ticket for the Titanic and the captain time to warn about icebergs. But what if the captain ignored our warning, like many others ignored, and the liner sank yet? In other words, the time travel to change the past? The notion of a journey to the past implies some paradoxes. What if accidentally travel back in time we killed our grandmother before she gave birth to our mother? Although it was impossible to change the past, would travel to the resulting attractive. Although we could not change the course of history known, we could participate. For example, it would be possible to go back in time and help the allies win a battle in the Second World War. It could even be that the tide of battle was determined by the presence of these tourists from the future.In fact, some argue that certain far ahead of his time historical figures such as Leonardo da Vinci, Jules Verne and Nikola Tesla were time travelers. If we decided to travel back in time, it would be possible to match figures like Enoch, Jesus or Napoleon. We could assist the construction of the Pyramids or the age of the dinosaurs. The possibilities are endless. Apparently we can move at will in any direction in space. But in the time dimension as we are defenseless at the mercy of a powerful current that pushes us forward rowers. One would like sometimes paddle forward and investigate the banks of the future or perhaps turn around and rowing upstream to visit the past. The hope that someday dispongamos that freedom is encouraged by the fact that many things that were once considered impossible are real today.
When Wells wrote The Time Machine , in 1895, many people thought it was impossible that there were heavier than air flying machines. The Wright brothers demonstrated that many skeptics wrong. Then others said that the sound barrier is never surpassed. And it was Chuck Yeager again showed that what seemed impossible was not. Trips to the Moon belonged to the realm of fantasy, until the Apollo program, materialized. Could something similar happen with time travel? Currently, the issue of time travel has jumped from the pages of science fiction to scientific journals, as physicists explore whether the laws of physics allow. And even if with time travel key to what was the origin of the cosmos would be found. In the universe of Newton, the time travel was inconceivable. However, in the Einstein it has become a real possibility. The journey into the future is already known that it is possible and now also investigating the physical journey into the past. The idea of time travel became relevant thanks to the wonderful novel by Wells, the most notable aspect is to treat time as a fourth dimension, so it is anticipated in ten years the concept coined by Einstein. The novel begins when the time traveler invites friends to discuss his new invention: a time machine . The traveler explains the idea this way: ” As you all know, a mathematical line, a line of thickness nil, has no real existence. The same applies to a mathematical plane. Both are merely abstractions. Similarly, a cube, consisting only of long, wide and high, has no real existence. It is obvious that any real object must extend in four directions; You must have length, height, width and length. There are actually four dimensions: three spatial and one fourth the time. We tend to draw an artificial distinction between the first three and the last, because our consciousness moves intermittently, along the fourth dimension, from beginning to end of our lives . ” The traveler then shows his friends a scale model of his invention. It is a metal structure with pieces of quartz and ivory. A lever serves bread propel forward and one for reversing the direction of travel. Invite one present to push the lever of the future and the device disappears instantly. Where it has gone? He has not moved in space, has just moved to another time, says the traveler. His friends do not quite believe him.
Then, the time traveler takes his friends to the laboratory that is installed in your home and presents them with a life-size model, almost finished. A week later, once the machine, she climbs aboard and starts a unique expedition to the future. To begin, gently push the lever of the future. Then squeeze the brake makes and check out the lab. Everything is the same. Then watch the clock: ” A moment ago, marked the ten one, more or less, and now he says half past three! ‘. Return to toggle back and beholds his housekeeper moving at full speed through the room. Then, push the lever further. ” It got dark as if they had turned off the light and a moment later there was a new day. Since then, the days and nights succeeded like the beating of a dark wing. Then, as was gaining speed, night and day merged into one continuous gloom. Then I saw huge buildings rise majestically and then disappear as if they were a dream . ” At one point, the traveler stops the machine. The dial indicates lejanísimo year has reached 802,701. What do you find? The human species is divided into two races. One, brutish and vile living under morlocks- -the land, and another child and peaceful, inhabiting the surface-the Eloi-. Among the latter, the traveler finds a lovely young woman named Weena, with whom he befriends. So discover, horrified, that the troglodytes of the depths and collect the creatures reared up like cattle to eat them. To make matters worse, get the Morlocks steal the time machine. When recovered, jump on board and, to escape, driving the maximum lever future. When you finally get to control the machine it is in the distant future. The mammals have become extinct and Earth are only one species of butterflies and crabs. Later it get to explore up to thirty million years into the future, which includes a red and dying sun and the type of vegetation lichens. The only visible wildlife is a creature shaped balloon equipped with tentacles. The traveler returns to his time with his friends. As proof of adventure shows Weena flowers that had betrayed him, an unknown class for those around you. After recounting his adventures, the traveler part again in his time machine and no more returns. One wonders where his friends have gone. We go back to the future or would be found, however, in some prehistoric era?
It should be noted that during the alleged nuclear crisis, would take place before the current year 2015, the mention of Titor, America would be governed, in his words, for ” black president “, which would fit with Barack Obama. Titor suggested that UFOs and extraterrestrial visitors could be time travelers from the distant future, they possessed superior machines to which he had. Titor described his time machine many times. In his first message he describes it as ” a unit of time displacement of stationary mass, moved by two rotating positive singularities “, saying it contained” temporal displacement unit; two magnetic containers for dual micro singularities; a distributor electron injection to alter the mass and gravity of the micro singularities; a cooler and a ventilation system X-ray; gravity sensors or a lock of varying severity; four main cesium clocks; three main computers “. According to their messages, this device was installed on the back of a Chevrolet Corvette 1977 and was later moved to a four-wheel drive model 1987. Later he said that “the model of physics-quantum Everett-Wheeler ” He was right. This model, known as the best of many worlds interpretation, posits that every possible outcome of a quantum decision actually occurs in a ” separate universe . ” Titor also said that is why the grandfather paradox should not happen.Following the logic of the argument, Titor could kill a different grandfather on a line different from the time: “… the grandfather paradox is impossible. In fact, all the paradoxes are impossible. The theory of Everett-Wheeler-Graham of multiple worlds is correct. All possible quantum states, events, possibilities and outcomes are real, eventual and occurring. The chances of it all happen anywhere at any time in the multiverse is 100% . ” According to John Titor, in 2015, the year would start World War III, ” In 2015 Russia launches a nuclear strike against the major cities in the United States, China and Europe. The United States fought back. The US cities were destroyed along with the American Empire. The European Union and China were destroyed . “Titor refers to this nuclear war as the ” Day N “. Washington DC and Jacksonville, Florida, were specifically mentioned as white. After the war, Omaha, Nebraska, turned out to be the new capital.
Titor gives vague references to the exact motivations and causes of World War III. At this point he said was characterized by ” border and overpopulation problems , “but also points to the present conflict between Arabs and Jews and triggers World War. According Titor, based on the theory of multiple parallel worlds that coexist at the same time, a change in one will not affect the other. Therefore, forecasts of Titor happen in a parallel world. According Titor: ” The real disruption of world events began to destabilize the East as a result of the degradation of consistent foreign policy … The Jewish population of Israel was not ready for a true offensive war. They were ready for the ultimate defense. To seek help from the West to Israel, it was what made his neighbors have confidence to attack. The last defensive resort of Israel and its neighboring Arab offensive was the use of weapons of mass destruction. In the grand scheme of things, the war in the Middle East is part of what is coming, not the cause. After a plague created in 2030 known as the new AIDS to have catastrophic results killing most of the human population . ” Their messages were received with skepticism, but it was impossible to prove in advance that they could not pass. Because Titor course disu trip was from a parallel universe and that things could happen differently as predicted, making it impossible to verify its accuracy. Titor not predicted the attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, perhaps because they did not happen in their world or because they really had no idea of the future. Some comments have pointed out the striking similarities between the Titor story and apocalyptic science fiction and Pat Frank Alas, novel Babylon , published in 1959 in the television series of the same name was based. It takes place in a small town in Florida just before and after a nuclear war and describes the struggle to survive after the disaster.
In his book The Return of the Dove , Margaret Strom says that Tesla was not an earthling man. On page 71 of his book he says that a male child born aboard a spacecraft that was on a flight from Venus to Earth in July 1856. The boy was called Nikola. The ship landed at midnight, between 9th and 10th of July, in a remote area in the mountains, in what is now Croatia. There the child was handed over to the care of a good man and his wife, the Reverend Milutin Tesla and Djouka. Supposedly this information efue provided to Arthur H. Matthews, in Quebec, Canada, 1947. Arthur H. Matthews was an electrical engineer, who from his childhood was very close to Tesla. Matthews said Tesla confided many tasks, including Tesla device for interplanetary communications, created in 1901, aiming to reach Mars. Tesla has suggested that could transmit large amounts of power over distances of thousands of miles, ” I can easily bridge the gulf that separates us from Mars, and send a message almost as easily as to Chicago . ” In 1899, Nikola Tesla, with the help of your financial support, JP Morgan, settled in Colorado Springs an experimental laboratory containing radio transmission equipment high-voltage. The laboratory had a 200-foot tower for transmission and reception of radio waves and receive the best equipment available at that time. One night when he was alone in the lab, Tesla observed electrical signals that definitely seemed to be intelligent signals. Tesla said in an article entitled ” Talking with the Planets “in the weekly newspaper Collier (March 1901):” When I was improving my machines for the production of intense electrical forces, was also perfecting the means to observe weak forces. One of the most interesting results, and also one of great practical importance, was the development of certain inventions to indicate, at a distance of several hundred miles an approaching storm, direction, speed and distance traveled. He was continuing this work which first discovered those mysterious effects that have aroused such unusual interest. I had perfected the apparatus referred to the point that from my laboratory in the mountains of Colorado could feel the pulse of the world, as it were, noting every electrical change that occurred within 1,100-mile “.
He continued: ” I can never forget the first sensations I experienced when I knew I had found something of potentially incalculable consequences for humanity. I felt like I had been present at the birth of new knowledge or the revelation of a great truth … My first observations positively terrified me, because in them was this mysterious something, if not supernatural, being alone in my laboratory by night. But at that moment, the idea that these disturbances were intelligently controlled signals had not yet been presented to me. I noticed changes taking place periodically and with such a clear sequence of numbers and an order that was not attributable to any known cause. I was familiar, of course, with such electrical disturbances, such as those produced by the sun, the northern lights and ground currents, and was sure that these changes were not due to any of these causes. The nature of my experiments did not lead to the conclusion of the possibility of changes caused by atmospheric disturbances, as has been claimed by some. It was some time later when I got the thought that he had observed anomalies may be due to an intelligent control. Although it was impossible to think of them as being entirely accidental at the time I could not decipher its meaning. The feeling is constantly growing on me that I was the first to hear greetings from one planet to another. One purpose was behind these electrical signals “. This incident was the first of many in which Tesla intercepted what he felt, were intelligent signals from space. In his time prominent scientists believe that Mars would be a suitable place for intelligent life in our solar system. Tesla initially thought that these signals could have been causing the red planet. Later changed his view. Near the end of his life, Tesla had developed several inventions that could supposedly send powerful amounts of energy to other planets. In 1937, during a press conference on the day of his birthday, Tesla announced in the New York Times : ” I have spent much of my time over the years to perfect a new device, small and compact, which can power, in considerable quantities, being sent through space to any distance without the slightest dispersion . “
Tesla never publicly revealed the technical details of his improved transmitter, but in its announcement in 1937, revealed a new formula, showing that: “The kinetic and potential energy of a body is the result of motion and determined by the product of its mass and the square of its speed. If we reduce the mass, energy will be reduced by the same proportion. If reduced to zero, the energy would be equally zero for any finite speed . ” According to Dale Alfrey, daily Tesla noted that, around 1920, Tesla looked able to make sense of the strange radio broadcasts from space. However, soon afterwards, Tesla began to express great concern about beings from other planets that had nasty plans for Earth. ” The signals are too strong to have traveled great distances between Mars and Earth – wrote Tesla -. So, I am forced to admit to myself that the sources must come from somewhere in the near or even moon space. I am sure, however, that the creatures that communicate with each other each night are not from Mars or possibly any planet in our solar system . ” Several years after Tesla announced the reception of signals from space, Marconi also claimed to have heard alien radio transmitter. However, Marconi was quickly discredited by his contemporaries, who claimed he had received interference from another radio station on Earth. There is some confirmation on the validity of newspapers and Tesla lost his belief in extraterrestrials, and the importance of communicating with them. Arthur H. Mathews claimed that Tesla had secretly developed Teslascope order to communicate with aliens. Dr. Andrija Puharich interviewed for Matthews Guide Pyramid in 1978. This interview first revealed the connections between Matthews and Tesla. Arthur Matthews was born in England, and his father was a lab assistant renowned physicist Lord Kelvin in 1890. Tesla went to England to meet Kelvin, to convince you that the AC was more efficient than the current .. Kelvin, then , he opposed to alternating current.
In 1902, the Matthews family left England to immigrate to Canada. When Matthews was 16 years old, his father introduced him as an apprentice Tesla, with whom he continued linked to Tesla’s death in 1943. According to Matthews: ” It’s not generally known, but Tesla actually had two huge transmitters built in Canada . I drove one. People knew, mostly, about Colorado Springs transmitters and the unfinished on Long Island. I saw the two Canadian transmitters. All the evidence is there . ” Mathews said the Teslascope was Tesla who invented the device to communicate with beings from other planets.There is a diagram Teslascope in the book of Matthews, The Wall of Light . ” In principle, it takes the signals from cosmic rays – Matthew said -.Eventually the signals are transferred to audio. There is talk in one end and out the other signal as a transmitter of cosmic rays. “ Matthews says he built a model of the planetary system communications Tesla in 1947 and used it successfully. But he could only contact spacecraft operating near the Earth. I hoped that someday could build a system capable of direct communication with other planets. ” Tesla had told me that beings from other planets were already here – tells Matthews -. He was very scared that had been controlling man for thousands of years, and we are just test subjects for an experiment of extremely long-life “. Matthews did not share the beliefs of Tesla that aliens may not have the best interests in mind for the Earth. His view is that if extraterrestrials were so advanced as to be able to travel from one solar system to another then should be socially advanced and peace lovers. Matthews craving to continue experimenting with Teslascope was indicative of the early days of the so-called modern era of UFOs. In the fifties he contacted George Adamski and Howard Menger were writing books and lecturing to eager believers, about the space brothers who were like gods. These occupants of UFOs claimed to be from different planets of the solar system, with Mars Venus and key. Space brothers preached a form of spatial religion of a new era, with descriptions of their utopian worlds and denouncing the belligerence of mankind.
HG Wells’s book was truly prophetic considering the time as a fourth dimension. Einstein would use this idea in his special theory of relativity in 1905, which describes how a static and a moving observer measure time differently. Einstein’s theory, developed by his mathematics professor Hermann Minkowski, demonstrates that time, in fact, can be treated mathematically as a fourth dimension. Our universe is, therefore, dimensional. We say the surface of the Earth is two-dimensional because every point belonging to it can be specified by two coordinates, longitude and latitude. To locate an event in the universe requires four coordinates. An example of the Russian physicist George Gamow best illustrates the idea. If I want to invite someone to a party, I must provide four coordinates. We say, for example, that the party is on Valencia Street No. 26, corner of Sardinia street, on the 3rd floor and the 14th of June. The first three coordinates locate the position of the party in space. But I must also indicate the time. The two first coordinates inform my guest to what extent of land area should go; the third, the height to be reached on this point, and the fourth, at what time to arrive. Four coordinates, four dimensions. We can visualize our four-dimensional universe using a three-dimensional model. The horizontal axes represent, as an example, only two dimensions of space, while the vertical axis indicates the time dimension. Up is the future and down the past. Textbooks usually have a two-dimensional diagram of the solar system. The Sun appears as a circular disc and the Earth, as a smaller one near circle. Earth’s orbit is represented as a circle of dots on the flat surface of the diagram. This two-dimensional model captures one moment in time. But suppose dispusiéramos a film of the solar system to show the rotational movement of the earth around the sun. Each frame of the film would be a two-dimensional image of the solar system, a snapshot at a particular time. If we cut the film into individual frames and piled on each other, we would get adequate representation of spacetime. Successive frames becoming increasingly late events. The point in time that corresponds to a particular frame is given by its vertical position in the stack. The Sun appears in the center of each frame as a still yellow disc.
So in the stack, the Sun becomes a yellow vertical bar extending from the bottom up, representing the progress of the sun from the past to the future. In each frame, the Earth is a small blue dot, as we ascend on the stack, it is at a different point in its orbit. Therefore, in the battery Earth becomes a blue helix that surrounds the center yellow bar. The radius of the helix is the Earth’s orbit, one hundred fifty million kilometers, or eight minutes light. The temporal distance that the propeller takes to complete one orbit is, of course, one year. This propeller is the world line of the Earth, its path through space-time. If we were able to think in four dimensions, we would see that the Earth is not just a sphere, but actually is a propeller, a giant spaghetti spiraling, over time, around the world line del Sol. the time traveler said Wells, all real objects have four dimensions: length, width, height and length. Real objects have an extension in time. Maybe six feet tall, wide and thirty sixty thick and our duration is fifty years we measure. We also have a line of universe. That line began with our birth, snaking through space and time, stringing all the events of our lives, and end with our death. A time traveler who visits the past is simply someone whose world line forms a loop in time, perhaps crossing herself. The latter would allow the traveler’s hand shake himself.The older version of the time traveler would find his younger self and say, ” Hello! I am your future. I have traveled back in time to say hello . ” Young surprised replies: “Really? “and continue his life. Someday, many years later, would live the same event, he would meet with his younger self, we shake hands and say, ” Hello! I am your future. I have traveled back in time to say hello . ” But what if the elder traveler, rather than being friendly with his younger self, murdered him? The trip to the past implies such paradoxes. A frequent question is: “What if someone traveled back in time and killed his own grandmother before she gave birth to her mother? “. The problem is obvious. Someone who kills his grandmother and prevent mother born, would not be born. In such a case, that individual could never exist travel back and kill his own grandmother. Many see this conundrum, known as the ” paradox of the grandmother , “a sufficient reason to exclude travel to the past.
A famous example of science fiction story that has exploded this idea is the 1985 movie Back to the Future . The protagonist, played by Michael J. Fox, back in time to 1955 and interferes involuntarily courtship of his parents. This interference creates a conflict. If your parents do not join, he will never be born, which their existence is in danger. So, you should do everything possible to fall in love with his future parents. Things are not going very well at first, as her mother begins to fall for him, the mysterious stranger, rather than his father. To join their parents, hatches a complicated plan. Note that, when acting wrongly, images of himself and his brothers, captured in a photograph in your wallet, fade, there a particular moment in which watches his own hand begins to fade, you can see Through it you are disappearing. He begins to feel weak. Having interrupted the romance of his parents, his existence is diluted. Later, when his plan finally finds success and their parents come together, it feels much better and his hand back to normal. By looking at your portfolio, your own image and that of his brothers they have reappeared. A hand can fade in a fictional story, but in the physical world, not dematerialize atoms that. Moreover, under the premise of the story, the boy will dematerializing because, as time traveler, has prevented his parents fall in love and, therefore, has hampered his own birth. But if not born, his line of universe, from his coming into the world until his adventures as a time traveler would vanish and no one would interfere with the courtship of his parents, which would place his birth, after all . Clearly, this fictional story does not solve the paradox of the grandmother. There are solutions for it physically possible, but scientists are divided on which of the two approaches is considered correct.Let us first examine the more radical alternative. It has to do with quantum mechanics, the branch of physics developed in the early twentieth century to explain the behavior of atoms and molecules. Quantum mechanics states that the particles have wave nature and that the waves have particle nature. Its most prominent topic is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, by which we can not establish the position and velocity of a particle with arbitrary precision simultaneously. This uncertainty, even negligible in the macroscopic world, is transcendental to the atomic scale.
Quantum mechanics explains how atoms emit or absorb light at certain wavelengths when electrons jump from one energy level to another. The wave nature of the particles results in unusual, such as the so-called quantum tunneling, whereby a helium nucleus can jump suddenly from a uranium nucleus, causing radioactive decay effect phenomena. The resolution of the quantum wave equations allows for the probability of finding a particle at different places. In one interpretation, this line of argument leads to the theory of multiple universes of quantum mechanics, according to which there is a parallel world for each of those places where the particle is detected. Many physicists believe that this interpretation is an unnecessary addition to the theory, but some of those working on the frontiers of quantum theory the idea of multiple universes and the consequences are serious. In this context, the universe would contain a unique history of the world, but many in parallel. Experiencing one of those stories, and in practice do, is like traveling downhill on a train going from past to future. As passengers, we look at the sequence of events as if they were stations along the road, past the Roman Empire, World War II or stepping on the moon men. But the universe could be like a giant railyard, with many intertwined pathways. Next to ours there is a way in which World War II never took place. The train is constantly finding changes in the way you can take any of the branches. Before World War II may have been a time when Hitler was about to be killed, leading the train to the way in which this war did not happen.
According to the theory of multiple universes, each time you register a point or a decision is made, a bifurcation occurs on the road. It need not be a human observation or decision. To an electron in an atom, when changing from one energy level to another, it can give rise to a branch. Always in that scenario, according to the physicist David Deutsch of the University of Oxford, a time traveler could go back and kill his grandmother when he was still young. This would make the universe being diverted to a different branch, in which there would be a time traveler and a dead grandmother. The universe where Grandma lives and gives birth to a woman who, in turn, illuminates the time traveler would imply that the universe we remember still exist, as would the universe from which the traveler. This simply would have moved to a different universe, where he would participate in a different story. All these ideas are well illustrated in the science fiction novel by Gregory Benford Timescape , published in 1980. The story takes place in 1998. Its protagonist uses a beam of tachyons, a hypothetical particle whose speed is higher than light, to send a signal to 1963 and warn scientists about an ecological catastrophe that will make the world is submerged in 1998. The protagonist read an article about it during a plane trip in 1998 and found in it the key to the Building your transmitter tachyon . Benford’s words, the hero ” turned his briefcase in search of the article by Richard Gott that Cathy had gotten him. There it was: “A tachyon cosmology, matter and antimatter symmetric in time.” A whole new world to explore. And Gott solutions were there, illuminating the page . ” The alarm is received in late 1963 and scientists begin to act on it. They know the theory of multiple universes of quantum mechanics and to publicly expose his warning about the future ecological disaster, help to avoid making the universe elapse an alternative path.Incidentally, in that parallel universe only President Kennedy injured rather than killed in the bombing of Dallas. Of course this is only a work of fiction. But maybe some parallel universe where everything happens as described in the book there.
Despite his contributions to science, the name Tesla is little remembered. In fact, Thomas Edison is mentioned in textbooks as inventor of inventions were developed and patented by Tesla. It is known that Tesla had financial problems throughout his life. Therefore Telsa often had to move residence, unable to pay the rent. The Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York was home to Tesla for twenty years and had to move in 1920 because they can not afford more.Eventually he died in 3327 the hotel room New Yorker. Forced to move from hotel to hotel, often left trunks documents as collateral for debt. These trunks were sought after Tesla’s death because it had become the key to unlocking the mystery of who was really Nikola Tesla and his amazing inventions. When Tesla died at the age of 86 years, representatives of the Foreign Property Office , at the request of the FBI, visited New York hotels where they had stayed and seized all his belongings. If there is a strange information on VHS found in room 3327 of the Hotel New Yorker is undoubtedly referring to the time travel. The confusion of researchers to this issue has been very large, it would imply that Nikola Tesla had invented a time machine.It is true that the creative abilities of Tesla have always amazed all and sundry. Science fiction just need to see some of his inventions, such as AC, remote control systems, air-lift, radio, etc .. But invent a machine to travel back in time falls squarely within the area of . But perhaps many questions about Tesla be explained if it had been able to travel in time. For example, maybe there was a relationship between the ability to travel through time Tesla and the emergence of a VHS tape in 1943. We may also assume that these time travel might explain his prodigious visionary capabilities.
Anyone who ever expect to find a time machine that would allow him to go back and rescue a loved one, what can be more comforting to say is that, as far as we know today, would only be possible if the theory of universes multiple right away. If it is so, then there is a parallel universe in which your loved one is well today. We are simply in the wrong universe. But there is a less radical approach to the paradox of the grandmother. Would be that the time travelers would not change the past because! have always been part of it ! The universe we observe is four-dimensional, with world lines snaking through it. Some of them can bend back and go through the same event twice. The time traveler can shake hands with an older version of himself. However, the solution must be consistent. This principle of consistency has been proposed by physicists Igor Novikov, University of Copenhagen, M. Thorne of Caltech, and his colleagues. In this case, the time traveler can take tea with her grandmother when she was young, but can not kill her, in which case there would have been born, and we know that he did. If you witness an event of the past, it should be developed as the first time. We think back to the movie Casablanca. We know exactly how it will end. No matter how many times you see it, Ingrid Bergman always take that plane. The contemplation of a scene from the time traveler would be similar. Studying history, you could know what will happen, but would be unable to alter it. If I went back in time and ride the Titanic, he could not convince the captain of the danger of icebergs. Why? Because we know what happened, and that can not be changed.If there was a time traveler aboard the famous ship, certainly not the captain managed to avoid catastrophe. And the name of the traveler would be in the passenger list that we know today. Consistency seems contrary to the usual notion of free will. Although it may seem that we can do what we want, the time traveler appears to be limited in this regard. But consider that we are never free to do something that is logically impossible. This is an important clarification of the philosopher David Lewis of Princeton, in his analysis of the paradoxes of time travel. Murdering grandmother when he was young for a trip to the past, it can be an impossible task.
Many science fiction novels about time travel have explored the concept of world history consistent. The 1989 film by Bill’s Excellent Adventure and Tedtalks about this issue. Bill and Ted are two boys who try to form a rock band. Unfortunately they have suspended the course of history and, if approved, Ted will be sent to a military academy in Alaska, so the group will be broken. His only hope is to get an A on the next test, but do not know how. Then comes a time traveler, played by George Carlin, from the year 2688. Apparently, the music and songs created by the rock band Bill and Ted are the foundations of a future civilization. Songs include texts such as ” Be a legal guy “and” Spend me ‘. The time traveler helps them in their work history, so that the rock group can continue. It provides a time machine-like phone booth. Shortly after the visitor from the future appears, Bill and Ted encounter slightly older versions of themselves, who have returned to the present. That’s when Bill and Ted younger they realize that their work history and time will allow the continuity of the group. They decide to travel back and gather some historical figures to bring them to review and to become worthy of top marks. Continuing the adventure, we see the same scene shown again, this time by the Bill and Ted older. The scene is exactly as before. There is some time paradox. Bill and Ted used the time machine to bring Napoleon, Billy the Kid, Freud, Beethoven, Socrates, Joan of Arc, Lincoln and Genghis Khan.They bring to California twentieth and chaos ensues. The characters created a stir in the commercial area of San Dimas. Beethoven brings together around an excited crowd when playing the electronic organ in a music store. Joan of Arc is stopped after taking office in an aerobics class, and Genghis Khan destroys a sports shop as a weapon trying to prove a baseball bat. In the end they all end up behind bars. As events unfold, the clock is ticking for Bill and Ted, and they only have a few minutes for your history test. Fortunately, Ted is the son of the sheriff and recalled that his father had keys to the jail before extraviarlas, a couple of days ago. Bill suggests using the time machine and go back to look for them, but unfortunately do not have enough to get to the machine before you start the exam. Then Ted has a great idea. Why not go back in time and steal the keys after the test? Thus the hide in a nearby site marked with a sign. Bill then look next to the putative signal and are there!
They take the keys, release Genghis Khan and others, returned the keys to the surprised father Ted, who reach school auditorium with historical characters just in time to make your presentation to the audience amazed. Of course achieved an outstanding and future emergency of a splendid civilization based on rock is ensured. The boys must still go back in time, find keys and hide them within the prescribed period. We may wonder if Bill and Ted exercised their free will. So it seems. When, in the course of their adventures, they encounter the younger version of themselves, they ask for the conversation to take place. They do not remember what they had said, but go ahead with the meeting, which takes place exactly as before. They always act freely, but their actions seem predestined. After finding the keys in the designated site they have to return to the past, steal them and leave them there. Although they are sometimes very complicated, the consistent stories like this are possible and there are a number of them. Under this optional alternative, we can revisit the past, but we can not alter it. Even though they have tried to generate paradoxes, physicists have always been able to find consistent solutions from an initial course. According to Thorne and his colleagues, supporters of this approach believe that, even in the framework of the theory of multiple universes, it should maintain the principle of consistency, so that all branches would have to be consistent. Thus there may be many parallel consistent alternatives that one event, some of which would involve time travelers to develop. In each parallel universe different things happen. In some, for example, the time traveler takes tea with her young grandmother, while in others, both drinking lemonade. But all roads would be consistent and in none of them the traveler would murder his grandmother. Everyone is impossible to change the past they remember. In any case, even the stories based on the concept of consistency can present peculiar aspects. Generally we imagine the world line of a person or particle snaking through time, with a beginning and an end. But in a time travel it would be possible for a particle to have a line similar universe to a hula hoop , a circle without end. Igor Novikov called jinn to these particles. Like Aladdin’s genie appear magically emerge. The clock on the 1980 film Somewhere in Time starring Christopher Reeve and Jane Seymour, is an example.
The story begins in 1972. Christopher Reeve is a young playwright who is congratulated on the opening night of his work. Among the spectators an old woman comes over and gives him a gold watch arises. ” Come back to me , “the woman said enigmatically before leaving. Eight years later, in 1980, the writer spends his holidays at the Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island, Michigan. There he sees an old photograph of a beautiful young woman and immediately falls for her. Ask the old receptionist who is young and he replies that it is Elise McKenna, a famous actress who starred in the hotel in 1912. The writer tries to find out more about the woman. On a visit to the library is a journal article containing the last picture taken of her. It is the mysterious old woman who gave the opening night watch. The writer is totally confused. Visit the author of a book about famous actresses and see that Elise McKenna died that night. It also discovers that she especially appreciated a book on time travel. The writer then find the scientist who wrote the book, whose theory on time travel is based on self-hypnosis. According to his hypothesis, if, for example, someone is going to an old hotel, dressed in period clothing, make an effort of imagination and continuously repeats the time you want to visit, can I be moved to the past. The scientist tried once and was transported to the past, but the impression lasted only a moment and could never prove it. Eager to test the technique, the writer looks back to the hotel and the old record books to know the exact day of the year 1912 reached the young Elise McKenna. Find the page where it was signed and, in the same book, his own firm. It encouraged by the discovery, dressed in a period costume and gold watch sets. After hiding in the closet all modern objects in the room that could disturb the time to focus on the past, he lies on the hotel bed. Then he begins to murmur again and again on the day of 1912 that you want to visit, until it falls into a deep sleep. I wake up surrounded by florida decorating a hotel room in 1912. No matter how he could physically happen.Young goes to the reception to check the exact time, 9:18, he had seen in the hotel book. It strives to sign correctly, because he fears that failure to do so will break the spell and wake up again in 1980. He wants to meet the past, not change. Find Miss McKenna, who works in the hotel and as expected, they fall in love. In fact, he is present when he made the famous photograph. She turns to look at him right in the moment when the camera trigger. After a night of love, they plan their future together. She looks at the time on the watch case and jokes about the suit bearing the writer, saying he has more than fifteen years. The protest cheerfully saying it has large pockets for money and in doing so, reaches in and pulls them a penny. He realizes then that minted coin bears the date of 1979. It has made a mistake! Somehow it has slipped a modern coin in his pocket. To reach out to the young, she and the whole room quickly fade into the distance, being back in the hotel in 1980. It then tries desperately to repeat the 1912 date, time and time again, but does not work: no longer back to back. The unfortunate young man languishes and soon dies of a broken heart, after which it is received by a young Miss McKenna and both are surrounded by a white light.
Although this mechanism of time travel is unlikely, the story itself is consistent. No paradox. Christopher Reeve’s character does not change the past at all, but in fact it fills. Participates in such past Miss McKenna was making love with him and she delivers the clock later and already old, he returns. But where does the clock? It is a jinn. The old Miss McKenna gives it to the young writer, who carries the past, to deliver the same woman when she was young.She keeps it all his life until the moment it back to him. So who built the clock? Anyone. The clock never went through a watch factory. His universe is circular line. Novikov noted that, in the case of a jinn macroscopic like this, the outside world must always use energy to repair any wear, entropy, that accumulates, so that falls exactly its original condition to complete the loop. Although possible in theory, the jinn macroscopic are very unlikely. The story could have developed in full without the clock. This also is somewhat unlikely that appears correctly mark the time. It would be more plausible to imagine a broken clock, or maybe a clip to pass back and forth between the two protagonists. But it’s a clock running. According to quantum mechanics, if you have enough energy, you can make that spontaneously appears a macroscopic object, along with associated antiparticles, which have the same mass but opposite electric charge, although it is extremely unlikely. Admitting the existence of jinn , it would be less likely to run into a clock with a clip and still stumble upon it unlikely that an electron. The more massive and complex the jinn macroscopic, it will be rarer. Novikov pointed out that even the information traveling through a closed loop can be a jinn , although there is no real line particle having circular universe. Suppose you travel back in time to 1905 and tell him all about Einstein’s special relativity. Einstein could then publish his article in 1905. But I know special relativity by reading this article Einstein. This scenario is possible, but highly unlikely. In any case, the jinn remain enigmatic.
More intriguing is the novel You, the zombies (1959), master of science fiction Robert Heinlein, one of the best novels ever written travel in time. A young twenty-five years is a bar lamenting his luck. The young man tells his story to the bartender. Her life has been hard. woman Born and raised in an orphanage. Young had sex with a man who abandoned her. She became pregnant and decided to keep the baby. Eventually, it was necessary to perform a Caesarean section and gave birth to a girl. During the operation, the doctor noted that the inside of his body had male and female bodies, and underwent surgery to transform, without their consent, in a male. This is the reason that the title refers to himself as ” Single Mother “Moreover, the baby was abducted from the hospital by a stranger. The bartender interrupted the young: ” The matron of your orphanage was Mrs. Fetherbridge, right ?. His name as a woman was Jane, right? And you did not tell me this until now, is not it? “. The bartender then asks if you want to find the father of her daughter. The unfortunate young man accepts and is led by the bartender at the back of the bar, where there is a time machine. Traveling seven years and nine months past. The bartender left there to young forward nine months, just in time to kidnap a baby named Jane. Then takes the girl eighteen years back in time and leaves the door of an orphanage. After returning with the young, just to impregnate a girl named Jane. The young barman leads to the future to study hospitality. In the end, while the barman ponders the adventure, you look an old scar on the belly and mutters: ” I know where I come from. But where you come all ye zombies? . ” The barman who is really Jane, have stepped back in time to become at once on his own mother and his own father. His line of universe is truly complex. Begins as the baby Jane, is brought to the past by a barman, grows up in an orphanage, has sex with a man, she gives birth to a girl named Jane, changes sex, go to the bar to bemoan their fate, travels to the past a bartender makes love to a woman named Jane and is driven forward by that tender, which in turn becomes bartender who travels back in time to plot the story again. It is a consistent, strange and wonderful at the same time account.
The idea was used by Ben Bova’s novel Orion , in 1984, in which a time travel allows future humans back to the past and create the human race. In the novel, then, it creates the human species itself. In a similar way we will see later how the time travel in general relativity can allow the universe to originate himself. ! We’re in a really amazing universe! Sometimes science fiction results in scientific research. In 1985, Carl Sagan was writing a science fiction novel entitled Contact . Sagan claimed that his heroin fell in a small black hole in the earth and fired out another black hole in a distant point in space. To do this, he asked his friend Professor Kip Thorne to check whether your hypothesis fiction violated any law of physics. Thorne Sagan replied that what I really wanted was a wormhole, or a space-time tunnel, which will connect two distant places. As a result, Thorne became interested in the physics of wormholes and, together with colleagues, he showed how they could be used to travel to the past. Sagan wanted to present, in a dramatic way, the profound consequences of contact with an alien civilization. In the film of the same name, Jodie Foster plays the role of an investigating team SETI, or Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, which detects a radio signal as he examined the star Vega. The protagonist communicates the fact to an Australian colleague, who also detects the signal on your radio telescope. After confirmation, his aide question: “And now, who we tell?”. ” Everyone , “Foster replied.Soon they are involved from CNN to the US president. The signal appears to correspond to a television, so Foster’s introduced into a monitor. It is a sequence in which Hitler speech at a Nazi concentration. ¿Nazis in the star Vega? No, any inhabitants of the star are limited to forward a received television signal from Earth, a transmission in 1936. Vega is twenty light years, so that the television signal, traveling at the speed of light It has taken that long to reach that star. When Vega received the transmission, they deduced the presence of intelligent life on our planet. They imagined that we would recognize our own signal immediately, which made it perfect to announce its own presence. Thus, the reproduced and sent back. The answer took twenty-six years to reach Earth in 1988.
Interlaced with the frames of the television broadcast, a second series of images that turn out to be a set of plans that seem to describe the construction of a kind of spaceship, capable of accommodating a sphere inside a person is detected. Does the spacecraft must build? The question provokes heated debate, since instead of a spaceship could be a bomb capable of destroying our planet. Finally it is assumed that aliens have good intentions and the ship is constructed according to the plans. Jodie Foster becomes the astronaut. Once inside, the door closes and a wormhole that connects directly to a location in the vicinity of Vega is created. The ship falls through the hole and emerges near the star. Foster considers briefly the Vega star system and then is catapulted through another wormhole to go to meet an envoy of Vega who takes on the appearance of the father of the astronaut. The return to Earth is produced by the reverse route. Stunned, Foster realizes that it has returned exactly the moment of departure. When the ship is leaving his colleagues wondering what went wrong. According to Foster, the journey had lasted eighteen hours, while for others the ship never left. Many experts refuse to believe his story. However, at the end of the film the presidential security adviser claims to have seen something. While the camcorder that Foster had attached had not registered any who could corroborate his story image itself had recorded exactly eighteen hours of strange signals. Thus she realizes that she really was in there somewhere. However you decide to keep evidence secret. The basic plot of his novel in hand, Sagan asked Kip Thorne if wormholes really allow the storyline possible, although, of course, a highly advanced technology is required. Wormholes connected to black holes had already been discussed in the scientific literature. The problem was that a wormhole would evaporate so quickly that never have enough for a spacecraft might cross it from one end to another without being crushed time. Thorne and his colleagues then devised a physically logical way to keep the hole open by “matter exotic “or material weighs less than nothing, to travel through it without perishing crushed. That’s how they made a fascinating discovery. It was a way to manipulate the two ends of the wormhole that allowed the character played by Jodie Foster not only return to the exact moment of departure, but even further back again. It is, therefore, was a time machine that could travel to the past. Thorne and his colleagues published their research in the leading journal Physical Review Letters in 1988, and thus awakened a new interest in time travel.
Although anyone with permission of Nikola Tesla, is supposed to have still built a time machine like HG Wells, or like ” Back to the Future “, on paper are the theoretical foundations to do so. The blame for this sweeping statement is Albert Einstein. Interestingly, Tesla repudiated his theory of relativity, but it seems logical to suspect that this rejection Tesla hiding a cover to hide their creation. But this is only a theory. In any case, Einstein revolutionized our concept of space and time with his theory of relativity. These dimensions were no longer absolute and immutable scenario that happened in our lives to become a more actors modified according to circumstances. Against common sense, Einstein showed that time passes more slowly for an observer is moving at a speed close to that of light to an observer at rest, and the same effect occurs if the observer is close to an intense gravitational field. It is a phenomenon known as time dilation and has been abundantly demonstrated experimentally using highly accurate atomic clocks. The amazing thing is that this opens the door to travel to the future. Imagine the character played by Charlton Heston in Planet of the Apes and in its space travel have reached a speed close to that of light, or who have spent time under the intense gravity of a star or other compact body. Because of this, his second, his minutes, your years have elapsed, without being perceived, much more slowly than land. What to Charlton Heston’s been a few years, for society on Earth have been thousands, enough so that when you return, you find that the only thing left of this is a society of apes. That is, it would have made a trip to the future of Earth. Terrestrial life have happened in fast motion. And this is not science fiction. In fact, when we take a plane, we traveled a few nanoseconds in the future compared to a negligible amount remain on earth. With more than 748 days orbiting the Earth, twenty-seven thousand kilometers per hour, Russian cosmonaut Sergei Avdeyev traveled two hundredths of a second in the future.
Nikola Tesla was the father of creation of much of the technology we know today. Without Tesla’s genius would not have radio, TV, AC, Tesla Coil, fluorescent lighting, neon lights, radio control devices, robotics, X-rays, radar, microwave and dozens of other amazing inventions. Because of this, it is no surprise that Tesla also investigate in the world of aviation and possibly antigravity. This could have led him to his alleged time machine. In fact, his last patent, registered in 1928 with the number # 1,655,114, was for a flying machine that resembled a helicopter and a plane much. Before his death, Tesla devised, it seems, the plans for the engine of a spaceship. He called Space Drive or Drive anti-electromagnetic field. William R. Lyne writes in Occult Ether Physics , that a lecture Tesla prepared for the Institute for the Welfare of Migrants (12 May 1938), spoke of the Dynamic Theory of Gravity . Tesla said in his lecture that this was ” one of the two major discoveries, which decided in every detail, in the years 1893 and 1894 “. While investigating claims of Tesla, Lyne discovered that more complete statements concerning these discoveries could pick up a few scattered sources because Tesla papers were stored in government vaults for reasons of national security. When Lyne specifically asked for these documents in the Research Center of National Security , in 1979, it was denied access because they were still classified. At this conference, 1938, Tesla said he was progressing with the work, and hoped it could soon publish the theory. One of the two great discoveries to which Tesla was referred The Dynamic Theory of Gravity , which assumes that a force field is responsible for the movement of bodies in space. Another was the Environmental Energy , a new physical theory would indicate that there is more energy in than that received environmental matters. This theory contradicts Einstein’s famous formula E = mc2. In his 79th birthday (1935), Tesla made a brief reference to the theory saying it applies to molecules and atoms as well as the largest celestial bodies, as well as ” all matter in the universe, at any stage of its existence, from its very formation to its ultimate disintegration “. In an article entitled The greatest achievement of man , Tesla outlined his Dynamic Theory of Gravity , saying the luminescent ether fills all space.
According to Tesla, the ether acts on the creative force, the giver of life, and is thrown into ” infinitesimal whirls “or” micro-helices “near the speed of light, becoming ponderable matter. When the force decreases and motion ceases, matter reverts to the ether, a form of ” atomic decay “. Tesla believed that humanity could harness these processes to: produce material of ether; create anything you want with matter and energy derived; alter the size of the Earth; control earth stations (climate control); lead the way on Earth through the Universe, like a spaceship; cause collisions of planets to produce new suns and stars, heat, and light; originate and develop life in infinite ways. As we can see, many of these actions correspond to what we believe God can do. Next to some of these possibilities, build a time machine seems a minor issue. When Tesla was 82 years old, he was still able to attack the theory of relativity of Einstein with a startling statement: ” I solved a dynamic theory of gravity in all its details, and hope to give this to the world very soon.Explains the causes of this force and the movements of celestial bodies under its influence, so that you can successfully an end to futile speculations and misconceptions, such as that of curved space. According relativistic, the space has a tendency to bend due to an inherent property or presence of celestial bodies. Conceding a semblance of reality to this fantastic idea, it is still very self-contradictory. Each action is accompanied by an equivalent reaction, and the effects of the latter are in direct opposition to those of the first. Supposing that the bodies act upon the surrounding space causing curvature of the same, it seems, to my simple mind that the curved spaces must have the bodies reaction and producing the opposite effects, straighten curves. Since action and reaction are coexistent, it follows that the supposed curvature of space is entirely impossible – However, even if it existed, would not explain the motions of the bodies as observed. Only the existence of a force field can explain, and this assumption applies to the curvature of space. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion . “
It is a pity that Tesla never publish this dynamic theory of gravity, which either remained in his head, or was among the extensive documentation that was seized at his death. Modern thinking about gravity suggests that when a heavy object emits gravitational waves that radiate at the speed of light moves. These gravity waves behave in similar ways to many other types of waves. The greatest inventions of Tesla were all based on the study of waves. He always considered sound, light, heat, X-rays and radio waves are all related phenomena that could be studied using the same math class. His differences with Einstein suggest that Tesla extended his thinking to gravity. In the 1980s it was shown that Tesla was right. A study of energy loss in a double neutron pulsar, called PSR 1913-16 proved that gravity waves exist. Tesla’s idea that gravity is a field effect is now taken more seriously than what took Einstein. Unfortunately, Tesla never revealed what had led him to this conclusion. He never explained his theory of gravitation. The attack was the work of Einstein was considered outrageous by the scientific world of that time, and only now have enough knowledge of gravity to know that Tesla was right. Tesla had discovered that the electrostatic emission surface of a conductor will always concentrate where the surface is curved, or has an edge.While steeper the curve, or corner, the higher the concentration of electron emission. Tesla also noted that an electrostatic charge will flow over the surface of a conductor rather than penetrate it. This is called the Faraday effect , discovered by Michael Faraday many years. This also explains the principles of Faraday cage, which is used in research laboratories for high voltage and to protect humans and the electro-sensitive equipment from damage. According to eyewitness reports of UFOs inside, there is a circle in the center column of the vehicle. This would serve as a superstructure to the rest of the cup-shaped vehicle, and also a high voltage and entail the use of a high frequency coil, similar to the Tesla coil, invented in 1891 Tesla.
While the trip to the future no conceptual problems, if we were in the future, the laws of physics are not so complacent when it comes to raising a trip back to the past or from the future. In 1985, Carl Sagan going through a rush to finish his famous novel. He needed a means of transport that would move the protagonist Jodie Foster Earth to the star Vega in seconds, without to be a barbaruidad from the scientific point of view. Sagan called his friend and expert on relativity, Kip Thorne, who collected enthusiastically stake. Thorne developed a possible solution to Einstein’s equations. Was a wormhole, a sort of tunnel which could, as a shortcut, connecting different points in space, and so get off the hook Sagan. But also, Thorne realized that, under certain conditions, a wormhole would also serve as a time tunnel, both forward and backward, but with two important requirements. The first is that to keep the wormhole stable enough to travel through it would need an energy ” negative “which counteract the effect of gravity. The second is that we could never travel to an earlier time to the construction of the wormhole. As we see, not the actual physical objects, at least in theory, the possibility of time travel.But while travel into the future do not offer excessive conceptual problems, the possibility of a hypothetical journey to the past produces all sorts of paradoxes that have led to more than one physical, and occasional writer of science fiction, to suffer real pain head. The problem is that, for classical physics, time is like a movie, a succession of frames which precedes each post. Last precedes the future and every effect has a prior cause. So, change the past necessarily implies, from the standpoint of classical physics, change the future. But what happens when you change the past is in direct conflict with this? We have already mentioned the grandfather paradox, which holds that if one goes back in time and kill your grandfather before he marries his grandmother, our traveler would never have been born.
But you can somehow avoid these paradoxes? Whatever their nature, they all appear in the moment when the traveler of the future interfere in the past so that the future is compromised. Therefore, an option to avoid that nature would, somehow, prevent a temporary tourist act on his surroundings. But this goes against some fundamental principles of physics and also eliminate our idea of free will. Maybe travel to the past they pose such problems that nature itself opposes them. But there is a possibility not to go against physics, thanks to a brilliant scientist named Hugh Everett III and his interpretation of quantum physics, the so-called interpretation of ” parallel worlds “. Hugh Everett III (1930 – 1982) was an American physicist who first proposed the theory of parallel universes in quantum physics. He left physics after completing his doctorate, discouraged by the lack of response to his theory by other physicists. He developed the widespread use of Lagrange multipliers in operations research and applied commercially as a consultant and analyst. Everett was born in Maryland and raised in the Washington DC area. After World War II, the father of Everett took up residence in West Germany, Hugh visited Leipzig in East Germany in 1949. He graduated from the Catholic University of America in chemical engineering in 1953 and received a fellowship at theNational Science Foundation , which allowed him to attend Princeton University. He began his studies at Princeton in the math department working in the new field of game theory, but slowly drifting towards physics. In 1953 he began to take his first lessons in physics including notably the introduction to quantum physics with Robert Dicke. The temporal paradoxes arise from time to consider the perspective of classical physics. But we know that this physical, but allowed to fly aircraft and explains why the Earth revolves around the sun, is not the best representation of nature, and less than the microscopic part of this. In the realm of the smallest rules of quantum physics, and does so with a seemingly very different laws which govern our daily lives. For example, it is to quantum physics every particle, such as an electron or a proton in a superposition of many possible states, each with a different probability. That is, the position of the particle in space, its speed, its decay time, or any other observable parameter can, in principle, have any possible value, each accompanied by a characteristic probability.
Here it is worth mentioning Ronald L. Mallett, a professor of physics at the University of Connecticut. Mallett was born in Roaring Spring, Pennsylvania, on 3 March 1945. Inspired by a comic book version of the Classic Illustrated by Herbert George Wells, entitled The Time Machine , Mallett decided to travel back in time to save his father, who had It deceased, which became the dream of his life. In 1975 he applied for a job at the University of Connecticut professor, where he continued working until today. Their studies and investigations include general relativity, quantum gravity and time travel. In 1980 he was promoted to associate professor where he has taught since 1987. He has received two awards and many other distinctions. In 2007 the story of his life looking for a time machine was told in an episode of This American Life . He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the National Society of Black Physicists. For some time, Ronald Mallet has been working on plans for a time machine. This machine uses a ring laser gyroscope and the theory of relativity. Mallet argued that the ring laser would produce a limited amount of drag, which could be measured experimentally: ” In the general theory of relativity of Einstein, matter and energy can create a gravitational field. My current research considers the strong and weak gravitational fields produced by a simple and continuous unidirectional movement of a light beam. Weak gravitational field in a unidirectional ring laser, it is predicted that a neutral rotary particle, when placed in the ring is carried by the resulting gravitational field “. In a subsequent letter, he argued that with enough energy, the circulating laser might produce not just drag it tight curves of type time, allowing travel to the past: ” For the strong gravitational field of a cylinder of circulating light, I found new exact solutions the Einstein field equations for gravitational fields inside and outside the cylinder of light. The exterior gravitational field shows have closed timelines. The presence of closed lines of time indicates the possibility of time travel to the past. This creates the foundation of a time machine based on a cylinder of circulating light “. He also wrote a book titled ” Time Traveler: A personal mission of a scientist to make time travel a reality “, co-written with the author of the bestsellers of New York Times Bruce Henderson, which was published on 28 October 2006. In a letter of Ken Olum and Allen Everett, these scientists claimed to have found problems in the analyzes of Mallet. One of the objections is that the space-time Mallet used in its analysis contains a space-time singularity even when the laser is switched off. And is not the space-time that could be expected to grow naturally if the circulating laser ignited in the empty space.
For quantum physics, the microscopic world is like a deck of cards, with each card represents a possible state. But not all are equally likely to leave. When one of these laboratory parameters measured value is obtained and only one of whole plethora of possible values. But, why one and not another? It seems that the observer, to measure, to stay with one card in the deck and the rest is strangely vanished. This issue attracted many interpretations of all kinds, but the most was the one that wrote revolutionize the doctoral thesis of Hugh Everett. Everett dared to launch an idea crossed by many science fiction. Using the analogy of the deck what if every card in the deck represent a different reality from the rest ?, indeed, what if each of these realities has its own copy of the observer? In this case, depending on the universe or reality in which each observer was found when measuring only get the result of their own universe, that is, one would get the letter from his reality. Thus, according to this interpretation, there are plenty of very similar or very different universes, with different copies of the time travelers, or even all of them empty. A kind of world where every universe embarks on his own future independently of the rest. Under this view of reality, time travel, either the past or the future, involves moving to another parallel universe and any paradox disappears. If a trip back in time I kill my own grandfather, I do not run any danger because in this universe have never born in the future. After a very attacked thesis, Hugh Everett gave their ideas and embarked on more military conflicts, as it became part of the Pentagon in full nuclear era.Curiously he built a prototype Bayesian machine, a kind of machine “in 1971 learned “from the experience and could make decisions, and that was used by the Pentagon for its development of ballistic missiles. Despite ending alcoholic suffering from a kind of social autism, Everett’s ideas were growing to the point that today are the basis for scientific disciplines as quantum computing. Who knows if these ideas will allow travel to the past in the future to us.Who knows if this was unsuccessful and Nikola Tesla, as assumed.
Another example of science fiction that stimulates real research comes from Star Trek series, which has produced countless stories based on time travel.Star Trek follows the adventures of the crew of the Starship Enterprise. TV series originally resulted in several successful films and telefilms some derivatives, which became a classic. The show’s creator, Gene Roddenberry wanted to tell a story of interstellar travel in the Enterprise visited the star system every week, before returning to Headquarters Starfleet and report their explorations, all along a period of five years. For the ship could move at a speed much higher than that of light, Gene used the distortion engine concept. Somehow, the space around the ship curved or deformed, which would allow it to jump from one star to another easily. In the time series, the mid-sixties, was born most physicists have scoffed at the idea calling it mere fantasy. Until Miguel Alcubierre, a Mexican physicist, decided to see if the matter could operate under the rules of the theory of gravitation of Einstein. He could, indeed, but required the presence of some kind of exotic matter, and wormholes to Thorne. Alcubierre’s solution, published in 1994, did not involve travel to the past, but speculated that it could access it via a search engine distortion. Two years later, an article by physicist Allen E. Everett showed how to do it using two engines cascading distortion. It is curious that the writers of Star Trek seem to know that the engine distortion could be used to travel to the past, and so the idea incorporated many of its episodes. One of the best stories of this type takes place in the film Star Trek IV Mission: to save the Earth . In the twenty-third century a crisis occurs when a giant alien ship threatens to launch a powerful beam that will destroy Earth. The ship sends a signal, which is the sound of a whale, a type of fin whale. Aliens warn humans that destroy the planet if we do not receive adequate response from other whales. Unfortunately, the whales are extinct in the XXIII century and there is none that can respond to the signal. The solution is to use a motor of distortion to travel to the twentieth century, a period in which there were whales, capture a couple of them and transport them to the current century to issue the expected response aliens and averting the danger.
As we see, science fiction often suggests to scientists. The paradoxes associated with time travel pose a challenge. Often such paradoxes are merely an indication that something important in physics is waiting to be discovered. Einstein solved some of the paradoxes that existed at the time with his special theory of relativity. The physicist Albert Michelson and Edward Morley chemist had done a beautiful experiment in 1887 which showed that the speed of light was exactly the same, for different it was the direction of propagation in the laboratory, but this phenomenon can only be explained if the Earth it was stationary. And all the scientists knew that our planet revolves around the sun. It is, therefore, was a paradox. Einstein resolved by his special theory of relativity, which toppled the Newtonian conception of space and time. Unfortunately bomb eloquently proved that the theory works, and confirmed the validity of the fundamental equation E = mc2, in the sense that a small amount of mass can be converted into a huge amount of energy. Quantum mechanics, a field that aroused doubts Einstein himself, but now widely accepted physical, has its own paradoxes. Still, quantum mechanics works. You can predict the probabilities of different outcomes in an experiment. A priori, it seems obvious that if we add the probabilities of all possible outcomes of a given experiment should get a total of 100%. But David Boulware, University of Washington, working on a solution regarding time travel, showed that the particles jinn prevent that total reaches 100%. Jonathan Simon resolved this paradox by saying that you can simply multiply the quantum probabilities by a correction factor, which you get back 100%. The investigation led to Simon and his colleagues to support the concept of multiple stories of Richard Feynman, as this approach to quantum mechanics provides unique answers. But Stephen Hawking thought otherwise. If certain quantum mechanical approaches are flexible enough to allow work even in regions associated with time travel, they should be considered as fundamental. This is the reason why research on time travel are particularly interesting because they could lead to new physics.
Richard Phillips Feynman (1918 – 1988) was an American physicist, considered one of the most important of his country in the twentieth century. His work in quantum electrodynamics earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965, shared with Julian Schwinger and Sin-Ichiro Tomonaga. In this work he developed a method for studying the properties and interactions of subatomic particles using so-called Feynman diagrams. In his youth he participated in the development of the atomic bomb in the Manhattan Project. Among his many contributions to physics also emphasize its exploratory work on quantum computing and the early development of nanotechnology. At one point, Richard Feynman said that discover the physical laws is like trying to learn the rules of chess based observing games. In research about time travel we explore extreme situations in which space and time are distorted at all usual. The possible solutions that might violate the ” common sense “makes them even more fascinating. Similarly, quantum mechanics and special relativity violate commonsense beliefs and yet, their predictions have been confirmed by many experiments. Quantum mechanics contradicts our expectations of daily life because we are used to dealing with such large and massive objects the effects of quantum mechanics on these are minimal. We have never seen our car experience ” tunneling “and out of a garage. We have never found the car parked on the grass suddenly out. If someone claimed that this event could occur with a small probability, but finite, we say that the laws of physics do not allow these phenomena. However it has been shown that this does happen at the subatomic scale. A helium nucleus can pop out of a uranium nucleus precisely by the tunnel effect, as George noted. Gamow. The quantum tunneling seems strange because in our normal world of massive objects and large quantum effects are virtually negligible. Gamow wrote a famous book entitled to underscore this idea Mr Tompkins in Wonderland. The book describes how the world would see if the speed of light was only sixteen kilometers per hour and if quantum effects were important in daily scale. The hunters would have to shoot tigers fuzzy could not be located exactly and always would walk misleading the car when you happen to experience the tunnel effect and leave our garage. If we were used to experiencing this kind of situation, they would not seem strange to us.
The time travel seems weird because supposedly are not used to seeing time travelers, but if contemplásemos every day, would not be surprised to find a man to come in the future. Confirm that in principle such trips can take place possibly give us new clues about how the universe works. Who would not want to visit Earth in a thousand years? Oddly enough, Einstein taught us how. We just have to get on a spaceship, traveling to a star who is staying at a distance slightly less than five hundred light years and return to our planet, moving in both paths at a rate equal to 99.9% of the speed of light . When we get back, Earth will be a thousand years older, but we just will have aged ten years. Such speed is possible, as our most powerful particle accelerator got protons traveling even faster. Fermilab, the current record is 99.999946% the speed of light. We already know that the doomsayers were wrong last referring to the heavier than air and the sound barrier flying machines. They should have thought a little more. As noted Leonardo da Vinci, birds fly despite being heavier than air, so they get to fly a machine of these characteristics should be, in principle, possible. So if we can accelerate protons up to 99.995% of the speed of light, one day can do the same with an astronaut. It’s just a matter of time and cost. Protons are lightweight, so accelerate to a high speed is relatively inexpensive. But as a human being weighing about forty-seven thousand quadrillion times, accelerate a person would be much more expensive, and only in energy terms. But it is obvious that travel at a speed close to that of light should avoid subjecting the body to excessive stress. For example, if we wanted to avoid extreme accelerations would simply limit the acceleration of gravity on Earth we applied acceleration astronaut.Thus, as the rocket gained speed, the traveler would be pressed against the floor so that your body feel the same weight as on Earth, so the trip would be feasible.
The astronaut would age six years and three weeks during the acceleration process to 99.9992% the speed of light, at which point you would find two hundred fifty light-years from Earth. So would spin 180 degrees for the rocket thrust to curb it. After six years and three weeks, the rocket would have reduced its speed to zero and traveled two hundred fifty light years. The astronaut would have reached the star to five hundred light years and aged a total of twelve years and six weeks to return repeating the process would encounter a thousand Earth years old, while he would have aged only twenty-five. ! We would have traveled to the future of the Earth! Richard Gott, professor of astrophysics at Princeton University, proposed a solution for a spacecraft of this type. Manned capsule could weigh, for example, fifty tons, and its multi-stage rocket, loaded with matter-antimatter fuel efficient as possible, have more than four thousand times the weight of a current rocket. For every matter particle (proton, neutron or electron) there is an equivalent antimatter particle (antiproton, antineutron or positron). If a particle of matter together with the corresponding antimatter annihilate each other producing both pure energy, usually in the form of photons of gamma rays. In the back of the rocket would have a huge mirror, a kind of candle light. To launch the capsule from Earth, a giant laser located in our solar system would fire its beam onto the mirror, which accelerate the ship to the outside of our system during the first quarter of the trip. Then the rocket ship alienate Earth to reach 99.9992% the speed of light, at the astronaut invest its guidance for gamma rays, generated by the mutual annihilation of matter and antimatter, slowing down the ship after two hundred fifty light years. Then the engine of matter and antimatter would accelerate the return trip. Finally, the astronaut would deploy another mirror and the laser located in our solar system would point to him and slow the ship upon arrival effectively. The project would require lasers located in the much more powerful than any of the currently existing space. Moreover, today we can only create antimatter atom to atom; so we should be able to mass produce it and store it in a safe way. We should also develop technologies for cooling the engine and prevent it from blowing. The ship would need a shield against interstellar atoms and the impact of radiation. We would face significant engineering problems. It would not be easy, but it is scientifically possible for a person to visit the future.
Einstein’s prediction that objects moving slower age has been confirmed by experiments on multiple occasions. One of the first demonstrations was related to the rapid decay of muons. Discovered in 1937, the muons are elementary particles with a mass approximately equal to one tenth of that of a proton.The muons are unstable and decay into lighter elementary particles. If we see a handful of muons in the laboratory, we found that only half left after about two millionths of a second. However, muons originating from cosmic rays that strike the upper atmosphere, and traveling near the speed of light, do not disintegrate as fast on its way to the earth’s surface as originating in the laboratory, which is consistent with Einstein’s predictions. In 1971, physicists Joe Hafele and Richard Keating showed the existence of delay Einstein moving objects, using very accurate atomic clocks placed in a plane that went around the world in an east, a path in which it is added the plane’s speed of rotation of the Earth. Hafele and Keating, at the end of the trip, noted that the clocks on the plane had been delayed slightly, just 59 nanoseconds, compared to those who remained on earth. It was an observation fully in line with the predictions of Einstein. Due to the rotation of the earth, the ground also moves, but not so fast, so soil clocks are delayed unless the airplane. Einstein began to think about the nature of time and its relation to the speed of light while still a teenager. He imagined himself away at the speed of light from the clock tower of the city. The clock stopped because he thought traveling with the light reflecting its sphere showing twelve o’clock. The question is: stop, really, time for someone to move at the speed of light? Einstein conceived of the light beam as a kind of standing wave electromagnetic energy, and there was no relative motion between them. But a wave of such violated the theory of electromagnetism Maxwell had established. Something was wrong.Einstein made these reflections in 1896, when he was only seventeen. Nine elapse until he gave with the solution, a solution that was a real revolution in physics and in our conception of space and time.
When Einstein was four, his father showed him a compass. The child seemed a miracle and this led to his interest in science. Between twelve and sixteen, the future genius taught himself Euclidean geometry and differential and integral calculus. He was a bright boy and, more importantly, with their own ideas, which soon became captivated by the electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell, the most exciting scientific theory of the time. Scientists have known for some time that there are two types of electric, positive and negative charge. For example, they are positively charged protons and electrons, negative. The positive and negative charges attract each other, while the same type repel. In addition, scientists knew that the loads can be static or be in motion. Static loads produce electrical interactions of the kind we see in the so-called static electricity. Moving charges generated not only these effects, but also produce magnetic interactions, such as when charges moving along a cable leading to an electromagnet. Maxwell soon would find a unique solution to his equations. It was an electromagnetic wave, a combination of electric and magnetic fields, traveling through a vacuum at the speed of light, a magnitude that astronomers had already measured at that time. As early as 1676, the Danish astronomer Olaus Roemer had meticulously observed the satellites of Jupiter. After verifying that orbited the planet like the hands of a sophisticated watch, Roemer found that when the Earth was at its closest point to Jupiter, the ” clock “seemed to advance eight minutes, whereas when he was in the farthest point at the opposite end of its orbit, the “clock “seemed to delay the same eight minutes. The difference between the two results was motivated by sixteen minutes they had to travel light to reach Earth when the two planets were situated in its farthest position, through extra distance, the diameter of Earth’s orbit, which had already been determined then by measuring astronomical techniques. Roemer concluded that light was moving at two hundred and seventy thousand kilometers per second. In 1728, English astronomer James Bradley measured the speed of light using the same effect that makes rain falling vertically do seem obliquely when viewed from a moving vehicle. From slightly changing deviations starlight, observed over a year, as the Earth around the sun, Bradley deduced that the speed of light was about ten thousand times the Earth in its orbit, ie about three hundred thousand kilometers per second.
Thus, Maxwell knew the speed of light. And when in 1873 he calculated the speed of electromagnetic waves and their observed traveling at three hundred thousand kilometers per second, concluded that the light had to be an electromagnetic wave. It was one of the greatest discoveries in the history of science. Maxwell also deduced that electromagnetic waves could have different wavelengths and predicted that some of them may be shorter or longer than those corresponding to visible light. Among the first gamma rays they would be found, X-rays and ultraviolet, while among the latter would infrared radiation, microwaves and radio waves. Directly inspired by the results of Maxwell, in 1888 Heinrich Hertz was able to transmit and receive radio waves, which formed the basis for this invention. Maxwell’s work fascinated Einstein, but the appearance belied his equations he had planned for that ray of light next to that imagined traveling at the same speed. In his view, the electromagnetic wave seemed stationary relative to him, a standing wave with peaks and valleys like furrows in a plowed field. Maxwell’s equations did not allow the static phenomenon in a vacuum, so something was wrong. Einstein realized something else Suppose a charged particle move quickly to a stationary magnet. According to Maxwell, the moving charge would be accelerated by a magnetic force. Let still load and move the magnet now. According to Maxwell’s equations, the variable magnetic field produced by the magnet moving create an electric field, producing an acceleration in the load due to an electrical force. The physics involved in each case and would be entirely different, however, the resulting acceleration of the charged particle would be identical in both. Einstein then took a bold idea. She thought that physical had to be the same in both cases, since the unique relationship between the charged particle and the magnet was being the relative speed relative to each other. In the history of science, many breakthroughs have occurred when someone has noticed that two situations hitherto believed different are really the same. Aristotle thought that gravity affected the Earth making objects fall toward her, but other forces were operating in the heavens and made the planets and the moon move revolve around us. However, Newton realized that the force that brought down one block was the same as that held the moon in its orbit. He realized that the Moon was “she fell “continuously towards Earth, as the straight path that he had followed our satellite in space would have otherwise been continuously curved to form a circle. One idea that was absolutely obvious.
There was another thing about the light that was very peculiar. Suppose the Earth were moving through space at 100,000 kilometers per second. A light beam traveling lead after us in the same direction as her, you would move away from us at only 200,000 kilometers per second, that is, 300,000 km / s less light 100,000 km / s on Earth? And if the beam traveling in the opposite sense, right away we would see 400,000 kilometers per second (ie, 300,000 more 100,000)? The fact is that the light is always moving away from Earth at the same speed, regardless of the direction in which travel. In 1887, physicist Albert Michelson, the Case Institute of Applied Science in Cleveland, and chemist Edward Morley, neighboring Westem Reserve University, they found that point dividing a light beam, so that a half out to the north and the another, to the east. After two separate mirrors reflect each of the beams, returning to the starting point. Michelson and Morley reasoned that if light is traveling through space at 300,000 kilometers per second and moving apparatus, also in space, at 30 kilometers per second, the speed of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun, speed Light regarding his unit would be 300,000 kilometers per second plus / minus 30 kilometers per second, depending on whether the beam traveling parallel or in the opposite direction to the movement of the Earth. They estimated that the beam of light that came and went in the direction parallel to the motion of the Earth would get delayed with respect to that made the journey in a perpendicular direction. However, the experiment showed very precisely that the two beams always came at a time. One can imagine the huge surprise to both scientists. After confirming the accuracy of your unit, they wondered if the speed of the Earth around the Sun at the time of the experiment might have been canceled for some movement in the opposite direction of the solar system as a whole. Why repeated the test six months later, when the Earth was moving in the opposite direction in its orbit around the sun. According to their hypothesis, the second time should be moving through space at sixty kilometers per second, but the results were identical.
With all this valuable information at your fingertips, in 1905 Einstein formulated two postulates surprising. The first implies that the effects of physical laws must be the same for any observer subject to uniform motion, if it were traveling at a constant velocity along a constant direction, with no twists. The second postulate indicate that the speed of light in vacuum has to be the same for any observer in uniform motion. From the outset, these principles seem to contradict common sense. Indeed, how can a light beam away from two observers at the same speed whether these observers are moving relative to another? However, Einstein proved many theorems based on these two principles and the numerous experiments conducted since then have confirmed their validity. Einstein proved his theorems devising many ingenious thought experiments. He called his work ” special theory of relativity . “Special because it was restricted to observers in uniform motion, and relativity because it showed that only have relative movements. Never before has anyone done something similar in science. But how Einstein came to his conclusions? Definitely something had to watch his reverence for what he called the ” sacred “geometry book, a volume that came his way when he was twelve. The book described how the Greek mathematician Euclid had observed that many notables could prove theorems from postulates that define points and lines and relationships between them. Einstein was made a great impression that methodology. It was simply to take a couple of assumptions and see what could prove them. If our reasoning is sound and our assumptions are true, all our theorems should also be certain. But why these two postulates Einstein adopted specifically? I knew the theory of gravitation Newton responded to the first postulate. According to this theory, the gravitational force between two objects depends on both the mass and the distance between them, but the rate at which these objects are moving. Newton assumed the existence of a state of rest, but there is no way to determine, through a gravitational experiment, if the solar system is at rest or not. According to Newton’s laws, the planets would surround the Sun in the same way whether the solar system were stationary, at rest, as if in fast motion uniform. Einstein said that, as it can not be measured, the only state of rest does not exist. Any observer moving with uniform motion can rightly claim that their situation is static.
And if gravitation can not establish a single state of rest, Einstein thought, why it would be different for electromagnetism? Based on its reasoning on the charged particle and magnet, Einstein concluded that the only thing that mattered was the relative speed between the two. From the interaction between magnet and particle nobody could decide which of the two was ” resting . ” Einstein based his second postulate in the fact that Maxwell’s equations predict that, in a vacuum, electromagnetic waves propagate at three hundred thousand kilometers per second. If we were ” at rest “light would exceed that speed us. If we saw a ray of light passing into any other gear, it would be the evidence that we do not find ” at rest “. In fact, Michelson and Morley tried to use this idea to show that the Earth is not ” idle “but his experiment failed. Einstein thought all subjected to uniform motion observer should be able to consider himself ” at rest “and, therefore, watch the beam of light to three hundred thousand kilometers per second. The second postulate of Einstein means an observer traveling at high speed and make the Michelson-Morley experiment will fail in the attempt Asked years later, Einstein admitted to having knowledge of the famous experiment in 1905, but claimed that he had not exercised excessive influence on their reasoning. He had assumed simply that any attempt in that direction would fail. In any case, we can say today that the Michelson-Morley perhaps was the most conclusive that the second postulate of Einstein was right test. Einstein realized that light could seem to always traveled at the same speed for observers who move at different speeds on only if their clocks and measuring instruments differed. If an astronaut to travel at high speed had different instruments and watches mine, perhaps to measure the speed of a light beam both obtain a value of three hundred thousand kilometers per second.
Spacetime is like a loaf of bread. If I cut the bread horizontally, I’ll slices representing different moments of earthly time. Two events are simultaneous if they are in the same slice. But an astronaut moving cut bread otherwise tilting the knife. The events that are inclined in the same slice shall be simultaneous for him. This also explains why the astronaut and we disagree about the length of the ship. We’re just cutting its line of dimensional universe differently. It is as if we were to ask for the thickness of a tree trunk. Seen in radial direction, we will have an answer, but if we look under a certain angle, we get another. If an astronaut traverse the solar system 99.995% of the speed of light, we would observe the pace of their watches is one-hundredth of one of us and that the length of the ship is reduced by the same factor. Suppose that targets the star Betelgeuse, a few hundred light years from Earth. As traveling at nearly the speed of light, it takes to get something over five hundred years. But as their clocks are moving much slower than ours, we would see only five years age while traveling. When you get to Betelgeuse it will be only five years older than when they came through here. But what is experienced by the astronaut? The rest is considered. Go to the Sun and Betelgeuse move towards him to 99.995% of the speed of light, which, to measure the separation between the two stars, get only five light years hundredth of us would measure the distance. The Sun and Betelgeuse are like the nose and tail of a ” ship “that goes with him at a speed approaching that of light. By measuring its length, this light turns out to be five years. That is, the tail of the ” ship “-Betelgeuse- happens to him about five years after I did the sun, so when you reach your destination is only five years older, as planned. Curiously, Einstein’s thought experiments there were no people on Earth to observe an astronaut traveling in a spaceship. Instead, the great physicist analyzed the case of an observer at a railway station comparing his notes with another located in the center of a fast-moving train. Einstein used a train because it was the fastest car existing in 1905.
If a ship is closer to us faster than the speed of light, a light signal sent forward by astronaut never reach the nose of the aircraft as it moves faster and also takes you advantage. Any athlete knows that it is impossible to reach another that runs faster and carrying a distance from start. Observed by the astronaut it would be very peculiar. It takes a flashlight and direct it toward the front of the ship, but never see how it illuminates. This is not what would be an observer at rest. Therefore the astronaut would know it is moving, which contradicts the first postulate. So, supposedly nothing can travel faster than light. Einstein had discovered a speed limit in the cosmos: the speed of light. Part of the fabric of the universe, and underlying equations of electrodynamics. This speed limit comes directly from the two postulates of Einstein, we take for valid given the large number of derived results are verified. In the most powerful particle accelerators, where we can increase at will the speed of the protons, we get more and go faster, closer and closer to the speed of light, but never reach it, just as Einstein predicted. Science anyway we can never say that something is impossible to achieve or exceed. E = mc2 is another result that Einstein showed from his two postulates (E stands for energy, m the mass and c is the square of the speed of light).Needless to say that the speed of light is enormous magnitude, and its square, much more, thereby losing a minimal amount of mass causes the release of a huge amount of energy. When the bomb explodes, a small amount of mass is converted into an enormous amount of energy. The atomic bomb works, then we can say that the postulates seem certain. Therefore it seems unlikely that we will see an astronaut traveling at a speed greater than that of light. We live in a four-dimensional universe. So, there are three spatial dimensions and one time. HG Wells thought the time dimension was just like any of the spatial dimensions, but he was wrong. There is a crucial difference between them. Turns out, mathematically, the time dimension is associated with a minus sign. This small sign marks the difference, because it separates the future from the past, allows causality in our world and difficult to travel freely in time. So to explore the idea of time travel, you need to understand where that sign is less, which requires considering, in turn, what coincide moving observers, as there will be many other aspects that will not be according.
Consider the familiar example. An astronaut goes before us 80% of the speed of light. Sends light signals to the front and back of the ship, where a pair of mirrors reflect them, sending them back to him. We note that the sending and receiving of these signals are two separate in space and time events.Meanwhile, the astronaut, who perceives himself to stand, sees two events separated in space and time, according to mark their watches. It is clear, then, that there are discrepancies about the separation between the two events, both in space and in time. Suppose a conference in Alpha Centauri six years ago. The event is in our ” past “. An astronaut could have attended this congress and found sipping coffee with us at this time. He could have returned to Earth two thirds of the speed of light. The conference is therefore in the ” past “of where we are today. Thus we can divide our four-dimensional universe in three regions: the past, present and future. It is not bad that we have three spatial dimensions and one time. We could, for example, have gone to a universe that had only two dimensions in space and in time. So would the world of Flatland, by Edwin Abbott described in a beautiful book published in 1880 and updated after A. Dewdney in his Planiverso . Creatures of Flatland can only move in two spatial dimensions, ” top-down “and” left-right “ . A Flatlander would have a very different vision of our life. He possesses mouth and stomach but any alimentary canal that crossed his whole body. The Flatlanders have to digest the food and then vomiting waste, as Hawking noted in its long history . A Flatlander could see through a circular eye and read a newspaper that consisted of a line with a kind of Morse code. You could have a house with door and window and even a pool in the garden, but should climb to the roof to get to the garden and throw back to lie in bed. Life in a universe with two spatial dimensions and one time would be much more limited than in ours.
A world with a unique spatial dimension and another time, Lineland would be even simpler. Beings Lineland would line segments. Could have a king and a queen in Lineland. The king may be, for example, to the right of the queen. If there were a prince and a princess would be, respectively, to the right of the king and queen left. If it is found on the left, always stay there, I could never surround to stand on our right. In Lineland , left and right represent an absolute separation as that between past and future. The reason that three spatial dimensions and one time can come from the way in which gravity operates. For Einstein, gravity is born curvature caused by mass in space-time. When we generalize Einstein’s theory of gravitation in space-times of several dimensions, we find that the mass objects Flatland not attract each other. There is no gravitational attraction at a distance and nothing would make the pool water our Flatlander be maintained in place. So that large objects would assemble themselves and no intelligent life might develop, so that intelligent life in Lineland would also be impossible. But with three spatial dimensions and one time dimension, the planets have stable orbits around their suns. If more than three spatial dimensions with one temporal dimension, these orbits would become unstable, which, again, would lead to unfavorable conditions for intelligent life. Suppose there were two time dimensions. For example, the former Australian indigenous culture speaks a second time, the “sleep time “. If present, the universe would be fifth dimensional . As the sign of the terms associated with both temporal dimensions are the same, we could rotate the plane while ordinary-time sleep just as we do in the plane formed by the left-right and front-back dimensions. This would facilitate the journey into the past. We could visit an event in our past travel only, making our world line conduct a loop in the direction of sleep time, without at any time exceed the speed of light. If time is one-dimensional, we can only move forward, like an ant on a wire, but if there are two temporal dimensions, the ordinary time and sleep time, we could turn around in the plane formed by and visit anywhere in time as an ant on a sheet of paper. The normal causality not exist in such a world. Apparently, we do not live in that kind of world.
But our universe could have more dimensions than we thought at first. In 1919, Theodor Kaluza found that the generalized theory of gravitation Einstein to a universe of four spatial dimensions and one time dimension, more Einsteinian gravity usual Maxwell equations of electrodynamics was obtained, corrected according to the special theory of relativity. Electromagnetism simply have their cause in the action of gravity on an extra spatial dimension, as nobody sees that extra dimension anywhere, the idea seemed crazy at the time. However, in 1926, Oskar Klein, a mathematician, had an idea. The additional dimension could be wrapped as the outline of a straw to drink sodas. A straw to drink soda has a two dimensional surface. We can manufacture a strip of paper cutting and pasting the long edges for a tight cylinder. To locate a point in the straw requires two coordinates: the vertical position along the straw and the angular position on the circumference. The creatures that live on a surface and actually inhabit a Flatland dimensional. But if the circumference was small enough, the universe seems rather Lineland . Klein suggested that the fourth spatial dimension could be wrapped as the circumference of a straw to sip soft drinks, which its perimeter was so small we could not appreciate it. In this universe negatively charged particles, such as electrons, circulate around the straw in the direction of clockwise, whereas positively charged, like the proton, they would on the contrary. The neutral particles (like the neutron) not surround the straw. The wave nature of the particles would only tiny surround the circumference to an integer (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) of wavelengths, so that electric charges would multiples of a basic load, the proton and electron. The Kaluza-Klein theory and unified the forces of gravity and electromagnetism, and explained within the framework of a curved spacetime, which represented an important step towards the cherished goal by Einstein in a field theory unified explain all the forces of the universe. But theory provided no new predictions of effects that could be experimentally verified, why it became a dead end.
Recently, however, superstring theory has resurrected the idea of extra dimensions. The theory proposes that the fundamental particles such as electrons and quarks, are actually tiny loops of string with a perimeter in the range of 10 to 33 centimeters. Superstring theory suggests that our universe is actually eleven dimensions: time dimension and three space dimensions, all macroscopic, along with seven spatial dimensions balled up 10 to 33 centimeters in circumference. One of the extra dimensions could explain electrodynamics, as in the Kaluza-Klein theory, and the other would explain the weak and strong nuclear forces, responsible for certain types of radioactive decay and maintaining the atomic nucleus. Like any position along the vertical dimension of the drinking straw is not a point but a small circle in our universe every point of space would actually a tiny, complex seven-dimensional space from 10 to 33 centimeters in circumference . The exact shape of this space, whether a sphere, a donut or donut Hyperdimensional, determine the nature of particle physics we observe. In the early universe, our familiar three spatial dimensions also could have been microscopic. Since then they have expanded enormously in size and still continue to do so, which would explain the expansion of the universe we observe. But why only three spatial dimensions were expanded and the other remained tiny? As Brian Greene explains in his book The Elegant Universe , published in 1999, the physicist at the University of Brown, Robert Brandenberger, and Harvard physicist, Cumrun VDA suggested that the wound dimensions remain small because of cords wrapped loops, by way of rubber bands around a soda straw. Brandenberger and VDA proposed scenarios in which collisions between loops of string ” desempaquetarían“usually three spatial dimensions, enabling large-scale expansion. If the number of expanded size was less than or greater than three, this would resultLineland , Planilandia universes or macroscopic dimensions of four to ten, each with different microscopic physical laws. Given a set of universes so, we think that we are in a place where intelligent life can flourish, just as we occupy a habitable planet, when most of them are not supposed to. This reasoning, the British physicist Brandon Carter called strong anthropic principle is a self-consistent argument.
Admitting that we are intelligent observers, the physical laws of our universe at least should allow intelligent observers develop. As observers of this kind, we would be naturally in a universe with three spatial dimensions, which does not prevent Lineland, Flatland hyperdimensional other universes also exist somewhere. It is even speculated on the possibility that one of those extra dimensions proposed by superstring theory could be temporary, as the said time dream of Indigenous Australians. What would circulate additional time dimension? If we stray into the dimension of time sleeping, continually we go back to the moment of departure, as the character played by Bill Murray in the movie Groundhog Day , 1993, he lived again and again the same day.Flat-time regular sleep time is like a straw. The first would pass over it and the second would around. Just as an ant to walk along the straw could make a U-turn through the narrow dimension of the surface on which it is located, an elementary particle could make a U-turn in the ordinary time and return to the past , using the time dimension dream to go around. In fact, one might conceive of a positron and an electron traveling backward in time. In the filmFrequency (2000) assumed that this is the mechanism used by the protagonist to signal, in this case, photons of radio waves, to the past and save his father. Even the physicist Brian Greene appears briefly in the film, underlining its presence physics that underlies the argument. However, it should be noted that the idea of establishing an additional wound size can be temporary, a kind of sleep time is not the most accepted. In its standard formulation, superstring theory suggests there may be different universes, with different number (up to ten) of macroscopic spatial dimensions. But he says that in any case, there would be one time dimension, a dimension that shows a brand that unlike the others. So the time seems to be special in the laws of physics and, as Einstein observed, especially paradoxical.
In space the shortest distance between two points is a straight line, if in coming to a party we turn to visit a friend, the odometer will register a higher route than if we had gone to that directly. But because of the minus sign associated with the time dimension, the situation is different when we travel between two events separated in time. If we are invited to a party on Earth within ten years, the most direct to attend her way, ie limit to remain on our planet and wait, is consuming more tics on our watch, ten years specifically. If, however, we decided to give us a tour of Alpha Centauri and return to Earth just to party, we will move our clock of light back and forth, going and returning star, reducing the distance that the rays of light They must go, so you need less tics to cover it. As the space and time have opposite signs, the additional distance traveled in space means less time spent on our watch.Age less. This leads to the famous ” twin paradox “, a key factor in future trips. Suppose twin sisters, Maria and Juana. Mary stays on Earth. Juana travels in a spaceship to 80% of the speed of light to Alpha Centauri. As the star is four light years away, Juana’s trip will last five years. Mary will see how the clock is moving more slowly Juana 60% -the pace of the march hers, which only Juana will age three during the trip. Juana turns after surrounding Alpha Centauri and returns to Earth 80% of the speed of light, according to measurements made by observers placed on our planet. The return trip also lasts five Earth years, so Mary is ten years older when Juana arrives home. During this trip, Maria looks back to watch her sister walk slower. When, finally, both are. Mary has aged ten years and yet, Juana has only aged six. Juana has traveled four years into the future. This is the paradox: Juana could argue that, in his observations, was Mary and not her who moved to 80% of the speed of light, so he hoped his sister were the youngest when they met again. And that is the flaw in the argument. The two sisters have not had equivalent experience. Mary, who remains on Earth, is an observer moving at a constant speed without changing direction, if we ignore the speed tiny Earth around the sun. Mary is, therefore, an observer who satisfies the first postulate Einstein. But Jane is not an observer moving at a constant speed without changing direction. To turn when it comes to Alpha Centauri, you must reduce your speed from 80% of light to zero and then accelerate again in the opposite direction.
The universe of Juana line is curved, while her sister Mary is straight. Juana, an observer who experiences positive and negative acceleration (braking), does not meet the first postulate of Einstein. When Juana slows to a stop and reverses direction in Alpha Centauri, all their belongings are thrown against the front of the ship and more than one is shattered. In fact, the acceleration would be so violent that, in practice, the Juana itself could perish in the attempt; but for sake of argument, we assume that a woman is strong enough to withstand the experience. Juana is fully aware of being rotated. When Juana away from Earth at 80% the speed of light, before turning around, it can be considered at rest. It is true that Mary would watch moving slower than his. When it reaches Alpha Centauri three years later, Mary thinks will have aged only 1.8 years on our planet. Juana estimated arrival at Alpha Centauri and the 1.8 years of her sister simultaneous events are connected by a ” diagonal slice “through spacetime. The slice is tilted because Juana moves. Remember that Mary and Joanna will disagree about whether Juana rays of light emitted from the ends of his ship simultaneously or fail. Although they disagree on fortiori simultaneous more separate events. So, before you reach Alpha Centauri Juana, she and Mary think that her sister has aged so.But now Juana reverses its movement and begins slicing the space-time with a different slant. When you move to 80% of the speed of light toward Earth, you think your way out of Alpha Centauri occurs while the permanence of Mary on earth for 8.2 years, counted since his departure. On the return trip, at constant speed, Juana Maria perceived age 1.8 years more, from 8.2 to 10. During this period, Juana age three years, giving a total of six to reach home.Juana notes that Mary is ten years older than when he left, as she has aged only six. There is no paradox. Just the idea of Joan about what events are taking place simultaneously in the Earth changes dramatically when you turn on Alpha Centauri. Accelerates Juana Maria no. Juana tour, Mary does not.Twin clock deviating from its path, which accelerates, is consuming less tics, in this case the right way, which takes Mary, is the wrong one. The twin life less complicated age. The clock light Juana going backwards and forwards, thereby reducing the distance that its light rays roam and makes less progress.
Special relativity produced many results that at first seem paradoxical, but whose careful analysis shows that the paradoxes are likely to be resolved. In this case, when the sisters meet again, both agree that is Juana who has aged so. Einstein’s universe is not as logical as one would expect at first glance, but is the universe in which we live. In HG Wells’s novel The Time Machine , the time traveler is not taken on a spaceship and shoots out to the stars.Travel to the future only sit in a device for this purpose have at home. This kind of time machine is also possible. Newton did see inside a spherical capsule no matter gravitational effects would occur, which seems to also be true in the theory of gravitation of Einstein. The forces due to the different portions of dough evenly around us act in opposite directions, so they cancel each other and give a null result. As a result, although the capsule itself is extremely massive, once inside gravitational force does not affect us at all. If we remain on the outside, near the spherical capsule, we would destroy the gravitational tidal forces generated. Inside the capsule, however, we would be safe. According to the theory of gravitation of Einstein, these forces are produced by a curvature or deformation of spacetime. Outside our machine, the space-time would be extremely curved. But inside, where there is no force, space-time would be flat. To enter into our time machine not perish crushed building should start slowly around us, a very large spherical capsule, about the size of Jupiter, to minimize tidal forces that could affect us in the process. Then we would have to adjust the forces on the capsule to compress slowly get around us. But how he could transport us to the future that machine? Einstein said in 1905 that photons (particles of light) have inversely proportional to its wavelength energy. Shortwave photons, such as X-rays, containing a lot of energy, while long-wave such as radio waves, carry little.Within our capsule we are like a child trapped in the bottom of a well. We would be safe in the back of our ” gravity well “but the move at a distance outside the capsule would require a lot of energy because they would have to fight directly against the gravitational pull it exerts.
What you observe the time traveler? The photons emitted by distant observers would rush into the capsule, so acquire energy in its path as an object to fall. When photons pass through the windows of the capsule, containing four times more energy than they had when they were issued. If these photons initially had a wavelength of 0.3 meters, the traveler would receive a quarter of 0.3 meters wavelength. Instead of the oscillation cycle by the original 1 nanosecond, 4 cycles would register at the same time. The traveler, therefore, perceive that the clock of the distant observer operates four times faster than yours, and would pass before his eyes the history of the universe four times faster than normal, like a film in fast motion. Both the traveler and distant observers would agree that the first age four times slower than the latter. As noted astronomer Thomas Gold of Cornell, the time traveler and distant observers age differently because their situations are not symmetrical. The traveler is at the bottom of a gravity well and they did not. The perspective of time traveler would be as described by HG Wells. See that a candle outside the capsule is consumed very quickly, but called instead appear reddish-white, since the photons entering your machine are displaced toward the blue end of the spectrum at wavelengths short. In fact, many of the photons emitted by the flame experience a shift to the ultraviolet region. After age fifty, the time traveler could expand the spherical capsule around him and then dismantle it. He goes out of his time machine only fifty years old, but around two hundred years have elapsed. If we travel even faster future, would suffice to get our sphere slightly, bringing it even closer to the critical size for a black hole is formed. But there is a limit. The problem, explained the physical Alan Lightman, Bill Press, Richard Price and Saul Teukolsky in his 1975 book on relativity, it is that even with the strongest possible materials, there is a limit to the size you can take a self-supporting capsule without collapsing. The capsule must have a diameter at least 4% higher than that required to form a black hole. In this case, the time traveler would age five times slower than outside. Thus, the maximum speed at which a time traveler could move forward in this type of machine would be five per year, and should not get too close to the speed limit, because if the capsule collapse would create a black hole. The capsule is inevitably compress down to below the size of an atomic nucleus, grinding occupants. This kind of time machine is not bad if we do not try to go beyond our solar system, or if you just want to browse the world within a couple of centuries and were willing to spend fifty years in the endeavor.
The Tao Te Ching , attributed to Lao Tzu says that ” a journey of thousands of kilometers always begins with a first step . ” The first flight of the Wright brothers was only forty meters. The first radio transmission was limited to cross a room. perhaps because there are time travelers among us. The first step has been taken. Astronauts experience the effect of aging a little less than the rest of us. As Russian cosmonaut Sergei Avdeyev orbited a total of 748 days during his three space flights, is about one fiftieth of a second younger than if he had remained on Earth all the time. This results from the interaction of two effects. First, a clock at rest with respect to Earth, but located at the height of the Mir orbital station, advance slightly faster than one that will be found on the earth’s surface. The fact is that the Mir is higher in the gravity well that is Earth. But the second and most important effect is explained by the astronaut has traveled to more than twenty-eight thousand kilometers per hour and, therefore, your watch has run slower than if it had remained stationary relative to the Earth’s surface. Its orbital speed was 0.00254% of the orbital speed of light. The delay in his watch was very small, but real. Avdeyev is our most important time traveler to date. Other astronauts have also traveled to the future. For example, Story Musgrave, who helped repair the Hubble Space Telescope, spent a total of 53.4 days in orbit, which is more of a younger millisecond that if he had stayed home. The astronauts went to the moon traveled even faster than Avdeyev, but his travels lasted a few days, so the overall effect was less time. Avdeyev has traveled to the future about 0.02 seconds. It’s not much, but it’s a step. A journey of a thousand years always begins with a fraction of a second. If you only want to see the past in place of a visit, the matter is simple. We are doing every day because the speed of light is finite. Looking at Alpha Centauri, which is four light years away, we do not see as it is today, but as it was four years ago. Of the star Sirius, nine light-years from Earth, we see the brightness that was nine years ago. When we observe the Andromeda galaxy, which is two million light years, we see it as it was two million years ago, the time when Homo habilis inhabited the Earth. We contemplate the Coma cluster of galaxies far as it was three hundred fifty million years ago, when amphibians began to crawl out of the Earth’s oceans. The quasar 3C273 is more than two billion light years from us. Michael Strauss. Fan Xiao-Hui, Princeton, have recently discovered a distant quasar, located more than twelve billion light years from Earth.
The farther we look further back in time we see. Nobel Prizes Ass Penzias and Bob Wilson are scientists who have gone further scrutinizing the past. They discovered the cosmic background radiation consisting of photons in the microwave band bombarding us from all directions of space and are a remnant of the earliest infancy of the universe. These photons come to us directly from thirteen billion years ago, when the universe was only supposed to be three hundred thousand years. Our telescopes are, in a sense, time machines that allow astronomers to know what he looked like the universe at different times. When an astronomer observed a galaxy in formation it is as if a paleontologist could watch real life of dinosaurs today. A supernova explodes in a distant galaxy in the newspaper today, when its light reaches us, although the event took place millions of years ago. But we might want to see past events that occurred on Earth. Even that is possible. When we look into a mirror, we are actually seeing a slightly younger version of ourselves. Using visible light, which is the greatest distance at the past we can see from Earth? The Apollo astronauts left some reflectors on the moon. A corner reflector consists of three mirrors together so that they form right angles two by two, as the floor and two walls in a corner of a room. If a light beam is directed towards a corner reflector, the beam is reflected on the three mirrors and return exactly the direction in which it arrived. So now scientists on Earth can bounce laser reflectors on the moon and return them back. Our satellite is, on average, about three hundred and ninety thousand kilometers, equivalent to 1.3 light-seconds, so the round trip lasts 2.6 seconds. When these scientists observe the return of the laser signal in their telescopes, they are witnessing an event, sending a pulse of laser light, which took place on Earth before 2.6 seconds. They are, therefore, looking at the earth’s past. Although we can not ‘ see ‘radio waves, they also allow us to contact the past. The Goldstone radio telescope in California did bounce a radar signal in Saturn’s rings. The total journey time for the signal was 2.4 hours. When he was received back, astronomers were actually detecting the emission from Earth before 2.4 hours. Suppose we wanted to observe the Earth as it was a year ago, would be enough to put a huge corner reflector light midyear and lead us to him a powerful telescope. Spy satellites located over three hundred kilometers high tuition can distinguish the cars on the streets. From three hundred kilometers away, a telescope 1.8 meters in diameter can differentiate objects less than 8 centimeters, which is the best possible resolution from space due to the variable refractive Earth’s atmosphere.
With a telescope as well, from three hundred kilometers away we could recognize a rock star in the middle of a crowded stadium. If we make the telescope ten times larger, we could see the same scene with equal clarity from a distance ten times greater. The telescope captured at the same rate photons from said event, which will have a clear view of same. Now suppose that at a suitable point in our solar system built a huge telescope with a diameter forty times that of the Sun and orient it toward our giant corner reflector, located half a light year from Earth. Dispondríamos then a view with a similar quality of a rock concert that took place a year ago on our planet. It would certainly be a very expensive project, if we consider the cost of the Hubble Space Telescope. In space there and reflectors that theoretically we could refund photons from the terrestrial past. It is black holes. The light that enters a black hole never comes because of the immense gravity. But the light traveling in the vicinity could be bent 180 degrees and return to Earth. The black hole Cygnus X-1, whose mass is probably seven times that of our Sun, is eight thousand light-years away. In principle, a photon emitted on Earth in the year 12,000. C. could have traveled to the black hole and, having surrounded by a U-turn, he has rowed Earth to return to it just in 2000. This would provide a view of the world in the year 12,000. C., probably before the sinking of Atlantis. Unfortunately, the black hole is very small, so the fraction of all photons emitted by the Earth is coming to him from the tiny and really return, even tinier. If we do numbers, we conclude that it is likely that not a single photon emitted by the planet has returned after reaching Swan X-1 in the history of both stars. Another chance to see our own past, suggested by Russian physicist Andrei Sakharov, is based on the idea that the universe might be curved on themselves in some very peculiar way. Making a comparison, a flat sheet of paper obeys the principles of Euclidean geometry, but can overwhelm and paste two of its edges to create a cylinder. If we were a Flatlander he lived in that cylinder, we could continue to think that we live on a flat surface because the sum of the angles of a triangle would still be 180 degrees. But if caminásemos along a circumference of the cylinder, without changing direction, go back to the starting point.
The universe may be a three-dimensional version of this phenomenon, a giant enclosure arranged so that if we tried to escape from it at the top, at the bottom apareceríamos. If we did on the left apareceríamos the right, and if we ‘ saliésemos “from behind, we would end up in the front area. Light to travel from our galaxy toward the front reappear behind and continue traveling forward again to reach the starting point, having come full turn to the universe. In such a universe, the light would spin in three dimensions over and over again, presenting many images of our galaxy. These multiple images would be located at the nodes of a network. We would have the impression of living in an infinite universe consists of many copies of the basic compound, stacked in three dimensions as containers in a huge warehouse. The nearest image of our galaxy would be found at a distance equal to the shortest dimension of the enclosure. In 1980 these models Gott universe investigated and established limits in relation to the distance that could be the closest of our galaxy image. Recent observations have led to hone those limits. Apparently, if the universe were closed upon himself that same curious way, the closest image of our galaxy would be probably about five billion light years away, at least. If so, and could identify our galaxy among billions existing, one would see in a day, five billion years ago, which had even formed the Earth. Neil Cornish, of Montana State University, Glenn Starkman of Case Westem Reserve University, and David Spergel of Princeton, has recently indicated that such a possibility could be tested by observations of the cosmic background radiation. The photons in the microwave band that are coming from a ” shell “spherical having a radius of thirteen billion light years, as far as we can see today. If the universe was actually an area of smaller dimensions, that within thirteen billion light years ” would be “at the top of the enclosure and would enter through the bottom, causing the sphere will intersect. The intersection of two spheres is always a circle; in this case, the area of the background radiation in the enclosure and reenter herself circles intersect in pairs. Thus, in the map of the microwave background fluctuations pairs of identical circles should appear. This pattern would be easily recognizable, statistically, in a detailed and comprehensive map of the cosmic background radiation.
Suppose that instead of just looking at the past, we would travel to him. According to the special theory of relativity, the faster we move, approaching the speed of light, slow advance our clocks. If we could reach the speed of light, our clocks would stop. And if we could overcome, in principle we could go back in time. Unfortunately, it appears that we can not move faster than light. Special relativity shows that the speed of light is an absolute limit in the universe to our spaceship. But according to the theory of gravitation of Einstein, known as general relativity, under certain conditions, spacetime can be curved so that shortcuts appear, allowing passing a beam of light and return to the past. Kip Thorne and his colleagues have proposed the idea of taking a shortcut that leads back to the past at high speed through a wormhole: a theoretical tunnel straight through an area where the space is curved. Taking a short cut so we could get to our destination rather than a beam of light to cross the curved space. In that case, upon arrival, if we looked to the starting point through the space, we would be preparing ourselves to leave. In fact, if we wanted, we could even go back in time and see how we were leaving.General relativity allows fairly convoluted scenarios: like going on a trip and return to the time and place where we left just in time to strengthen our own hand in farewell. A famous story about Einstein describes an occasion in which he struck up a conversation with a guy at the Institute for Advanced Studyat Princeton. During the talk, the man suddenly pulled a book from his coat pocket and wrote something. “What is that? “asked Einstein. ” Oh , “replied his interlocutor,” it is a notebook that I carry with me. So, every time you think of a good idea, I write down before I forget . ” ” Never did I miss something , “replied Einstein. ” In my life I’ve only had three good ideas . ” One came in 1907, which later describe as ” the happiest thought “of his life.Einstein realized that an observer on Earth and the other in a spaceship under acceleration would experience the same feelings. Here’s why. Galileo said that an observer would drop two balls of different mass would hit the ground at the same time. If an observer who traveled on a ship under acceleration in interstellar space perform the same experiment, in principle these balls would float motionless in space, but as the ship would be accelerating the reach the ground, hitting them both.
The solution moving cosmic string is convoluted enough to allow us to travel in opposite directions around the two mobile strings, always moving forward, and continue coming home at the time of departure. This is only possible because space-time is curved and does not obey the laws of Euclidean geometry. Why we have not invaded us tourists of the future? It is simply because no one has built a time machine yet. In other words, if a time machine in 3000, someone could use it to go from the year 3002 until the year 3001, but it could never be built back to 2001, as the year is prior to the machine construction. Time machines based on cosmic strings, or Kip Thorne wormholes based, involving torsion of space-time, including space-time regions in which time travel is not possible. If so far has not made any machine that class, who today we find ourselves on Earth we will not be able to visit our past. Moreover, all the events that we know are within our past light cone, before the region also time travel. Thus, there was no time travelers to witness the murder of Kennedy in 1963. And as this important event, also we belong to a space-time preceding the creation of the first time machine, so no traveler time can visit. However, Cutler works show that, although observers carefully examine their past and find in it evidence of the existence of time travelers, the fact does not allow them to conclude that never cross with them in the future. At any time, an observer might cross a Cauchy horizon and suddenly find yourself in a region where time travel is possible and where future travelers made their unexpected appearance. Suppose we want to build a time machine based on cosmic strings, but we have the luck to find in our universe two infinitely long cosmic strings crossing at the required speed. Maybe what we find is a large loop formed by a cosmic string. This loop would be like a giant rubber band and swing, under such great stress that could slam at any time. A supercivilization could gravitationally loop handle that kind blowing massive spacecraft near it until proper rotation acquire and adopt timely manner. If the original loop and have the correct settings, collapse and, in doing so, two straight sections of the loop would side by side to enough to create a time machine speed.
A loop of cosmic string large enough to allow around it once and travel back in time a year should be more than half the mass-energy of a galaxy. But there is an even more serious problem, since a massive loop as well as compact would the collapse would have a high probability to form a black hole. A black hole is a cosmic trap. We can go, but we can not get out. Normally, when you throw a ball in the air, just he is falling to the ground. But if launched at a speed in excess of forty thousand kilometers per hour, the escape velocity of the Earth, will not return. Astronauts traveling to the moon should reach that speed. Escape velocity is the key to understanding black holes. If we could compress the mass of the Earth until it had a smaller size, its escape velocity would increase. If it should be as small as 5.6 centimeters, its escape velocity would be greater than that of light. But there is nothing that can move faster, nothing could escape our Earth compressed, so that our planet would have become a black hole. In this situation, gravity would continue collapsing the earth to form a uniqueness: a point of infinite density and curvature. Actually, quantum effects limit the uniqueness density about 5 x 1093 grams per cubic centimeter, but still would be smaller than an atomic nucleus. Around this tiny singularity would only empty space curved and encompassing all a spherical event horizon. Everything that happens inside this area of 5.6 centimeters remain hidden from any outside observer, because the light emitted inside is unable to escape. The size of the event horizon of a black hole depends on its mass. A black hole with a mass three billion times that of our sun, as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in the core of M87, has an event horizon fifty-six billion kilometers in circumference about fifty-two hours light. Suppose a university professor would investigate a non-rotating black hole three billion solar masses. The teacher could stay safely out of the black hole, to 34.2 light-days away, and sent within his assistant student. As the unfortunate assistant penetrates transmits radio observations.His message is: ” Things are going wrong! ‘. The assistant transmits the word “coming” just across the event horizon; so far it has not happened anything wrong. The helper takes him eighteen months to reach this horizon, according to his watch and sees nothing abnormal to cross. No sign warns of danger.But once through it, begins a journey of no return. No matter what he does because he is drawn inexorably to the singularity at the center of the black hole. The space-time inside is so curved that the uniqueness completely takes over the future of the poor assistant, who was as impossible to avoid as we avoid next Monday.
Another alleged time traveler is one Andrew Carlssin a man said the January 28, 2003 by the FBI for violations of the Security and Exchange Commission(SEC), an independent agency of the US government responsible for monitoring compliance Federal laws of the market, regulation of stock exchanges and options market in the United States. Carlssin was questioned for making 126 trading at high risk and have been successful in each. Indeed, Carlssin was questioned by officers on suspicion of insider trading. Suspicions began when the SEC learned that Carlssin inexplicably managed to increase its assets in cash for an initial amount of $ 800 to $ 350 million in just two weeks. Andrew Carlssin invested in 126 high-risk trading without even making a mistake, when the largest operators of Wall Street stock market suffered heavy economic losses due to extraordinary market volatility. Therefore, when Carlssin had an extraordinary gain of 126 decisions Bolsa, stock speculators began to suspect that something strange was happening with Mr. Carlssin. During his interrogation in the presence of the FBI, Carlssin, which that year had 44 years of age, he explained how he got his wealth. He said he was a time traveler. The FBI shortly after his interrogation, said quote: ” We’re still trying to figure out the source of information from which Carlssin draws its privileged information. He will remain in prison until such information is obtained . ” During four hours of interrogation, Carlssin said he was a man from the year 2256. Carlssin said: ” I can not help myself, and I’ve been trying to look natural, making me lose a little money here and a little there . But I seem to have been carried away by the atmosphere . ” Carlssin said wine of the year 2256 and, at that time, it was aware of the volatility of the current market.It was also normal that anyone who knew the history of the stock market could use it to his advantage. To prove his confession, Carlssin provided predictions about the exact date of the invasion of Iraq, and told them they would be March 20, 2003, which was actually the exact date. He carlssin also offered to provide information on the whereabouts of Osama Bin Laden and a cure for AIDS, but officers would not listen anymore. All I wanted was Carlssin be free and able to return to his time machine to go back to his time. When asked about the location of his time machine, Carlssin refused or give the exact location of it or talk about how it worked, he said for fear that technology could fall into the wrong hands. Of course the FBI’s history Carlssin believed.
However, a source at the SEC recognized that nobody could trace the origin of Carlssin before December 2002. Carlssin is as if it never existed before that date. A deposit of one million dollars per Carlsslin which was paid by an unknown noticed. However, the story does not stop there. After questioning several weeks remained in detention until he was released and followed by the FBI. Carlssin disappeared soon after and both the SEC and the FBI refused shortly after they reached Carlssin catch. His lawyer said Carlssin should meet him for a court hearing on April 2, 2003, but did not show Carlssin the subpoena. The April 29, 2003 Carlsslin was interviewed by phone and said he was in Toronto, Canada, creating a company. The story about Carlssin responses during interrogation was published in a tabloid weekly US, the Weekly World News of February 25, 2003, which was later quoted by the mainstream media. In a later article, the April 29, 2003, the Weekly World News wrote that Carlssin interviewed by telephone, and Carlssin told them he was in Toronto to create a company that would go public in 2007. Carlssin admitted that the March 29, 2003 was released by the FBI, through the payment of a deposit of $ 1 million by a stranger who did not give his name. At the time of his arrest in 2003, Carlssin was 44 years old. But he said that did not age at all. When asked what he had done over the years that had been missing, he said: ” No comment . ” Above the commotion raised by his case, Carlssin said: ” Timing is everything and everything happens according to time. I’m here now. So now this is my time . ” Many people do not believe you can travel back in time. But some physicists, as Ronald Mallet, believe it is possible. Mallet predicted that in 10 years people could create a time machine that could be used to travel through time. Until today, the strange story of Carlssin, the alleged time traveler, remains a complete mystery. In short, the enigmatic character who called himself Andrew Carlssin, starting with an initial capital of $ 800, achieved a profit margin that exceeded $ 350 million in just two weeks. Every investment made suffered an unexpected and inexplicable rise in value. Or someone warned Carlssin or was actually a time traveler. Until today, the strange story of Carlssin, remains a mystery despite having spent twelve years since he confessed to FBI traveled to our time for stock market transactions that he knew in advance and, in this way, hoarding a large fortune.
In 1999, physicists Sören Holst, Stockholm University, and Hans-Jürgen Matschull, Johann Gutenberg University, located in the German city of Mainz, discovered an exact solution of Einstein’s equations in a scenario of reduced dimensions, as the case of Flatland – under which he could have built a time machine hidden inside of a rotating black hole, and a Flatlander you could travel back into said hole and emerge later in a different universe. In 1988, Kip Thorne and his colleagues at Caltech, Mike Morris and Ulvi Yurtsever, showed how to make travel to the past through wormholes. Wormholes are tunnels that connect two distant regions of space-time. Consider a hole in an apple Worm; the worm can go faster and forth through the hole crawling on the outer curved surface. There may be a wormhole that had an entrance near the Earth and the other next to Alpha Centauri. Thus, there are two ways to travel to a planet in the vicinity of that star. One would take the average long route, which runs 4 light years in ordinary space; another would jump through the wormhole, which may represent a journey of just a few meters. What would that wormhole? A black hole is like a big ball of black matte color, but the wormhole, assuming that the tunnel is short, it is more like one of those silver balls hanging from a tree and that reflect all the surrounding environment. However, the room would not be what we would see reproduced in her, but around Alpha Centauri. If we jump into that ball we’ll end up, like Alice in Wonderland, to a completely different place, a garden of a nearby planet to Alpha Centauri, perhaps. Once there, if we look back we will see the ball our starting place. The wormhole is a two-way door. A ray of light takes about four years to reach Alpha Centauri from Earth if traveling through ordinary space. But we can anticipate it if we take a shortcut through the wormhole. As with cosmic strings, as long as we overtake a ray of light through a shortcut, the journey into the past is possible. If we find a wormhole Earth-Alpha Centauri, we could dive into it from. Earth, say in 3000, and emerge on Alpha Centauri. But when? No apareceríamos in 3000, but perhaps in 2990. Also, if emergiéramos in the year 2990 in Alpha Centauri, we could return to Earth at 99.5% of the speed of light and get to it about four years Later, in 2994. That is, we would be back six years before our departure. We could do time on Earth during those six years and come to our own starting in the year 3000. We would have taken a trip back in time to an event of our own past.
Suppose, however, that the two O mouths were synchronized. As Alpha Centauri and Earth are not moving at high speed relative to each other, observers in both places could synchronize their watches and agree on the time. To dive into the wormhole on 1 January 3000, Alpha Centauri emergeríamos in exactly the same date. In this case there would be time travel. Thorne and his colleagues claimed that the two mouths could be desynchronized dragging located at the mouth circle the Earth at a speed approaching that of light. This could be achieved approaching spacecraft mass to said mouth and just letting it ” fall “by gravity toward the ship. When the ship comenzase speed, the mouth of the wormhole would follow. Thus mouth must be moved at speeds up to 99.5% of the speed of light. Beginning January 1, 3000, if we llevásemos the mouth of the hole to a point at 2.5 light here and the point we brought back years, all 99.5% of the speed of light, observers Earth would that trip round five light years of travel have lasted about five years. The mouth would be again in the same place on 10 January 3005. Imagine a gifted astronaut clock and sitting in the middle of the tunnel wormhole. Earth observers would watch that goes very slowly, ten times slower than theirs, because they see the coming and going of the astronaut, with the mouth, 99.5% of the speed of light. At this point you need to remember that special relativity says that clocks in motion proceed more slowly. A clock that moves to 99.5% the speed of light in a round trip like that, would leave ten times slower than one that will be found on Earth. When the wormhole back to Earth, the astronaut has aged only six months from the start, that is, five years divided by 10. Meanwhile, the mouth of the nearest hole to Alpha Centauri has not moved, since nothing has pulled it. Moreover, the length of the tunnel is not altered throughout the trip, and is 3 meters long. Since the mass and energy of the tunnel do not change, Einstein’s equations tell us that the geometry will not either. Always have the same length. Only interconnecting change places. We wait until the mouth hole next worm return to Earth on 19 January 3005 on Earth, and jumped inside. After traveling 1.5 meters, we found the astronaut. It will have aged only six months during the trip, so your clock will strike on 1 July 3000. If we move 1.5 meters will emerge next to Alpha Centauri, which is also on 1 July 3000. Why? Because, as seen from the star, astronaut has not moved and his clock, which has advanced six months from the beginning, is synchronized with clocks thereof. After appearing next to Alpha Centauri on 1 July 3000, if we take a spaceship traveling at 99.5% the speed of light by ordinary space, we can make our way back in just over four years and reach to Earth on July 8, 3004. Would return almost 6 months before our departure. Suffice to wait patiently until 1 January 3005 and then we could say goodbye to us. Again we would be visiting an event in our past.
In this case, as in the motion of cosmic strings, there is a time before which time travel is impossible. If we lived on Earth in the year 3005, we could use the time machine to visit Earth in the year 3004 but not in 2001, as part of a pre-existence of the machine age. No one who is in the earth in 2001 will see time traveler, but whoever is on our planet in the year 3004 could stumble perfectly with any. Once the mouths of the wormhole are desynchronized enough, the time travel is possible. Later in the year 3500 perhaps, if we should proceed to move the mouth of the hole in the side of Alpha Centauri, we might resynchronize the mouths, which would close the period of time travel. This would destroy the machine we build. It can only be used while there.Exotic materials needed to keep a wormhole open, allowing a traveler to pass through it. The light rays that converge at the mouth near the Earth passing through the hole and spread the walk out the Alpha Centauri. This is due to the repulsive effects caused by matter with negative energy density of a substance to which we should add energy to get it back to zero. Surprisingly there are quantum effects that occur, very real, negative energy density.Therefore, Thorne and his colleagues hope that a future supercivilization to make use of such effects to keep a wormhole open. Another problem to be solved is how to place the mouths of a wormhole in the desired locations. Perhaps there and microscopic worm holes that connect many times and places in space-time. An alleged supercivilization might be able to increase the size of one of them until a spacecraft to pass through it. Since wormholes are open thanks to the matter of negative energy density are stable, avoid singularities theorem involving Tipler and can lead to a time machine without the risk of forming a black hole. However, they remain subject to quantum effects that can disrupt operation. The wormhole has an alternative mate. These distortion engine. In Star Trek, the crew of the Starship Enterprise used a distortion to alter engine space, in order to travel between the stars at speeds exceeding that of light. The Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre took the idea seriously and showed how it could work distortion engine, for which he used the principles of general relativity. In this case, we would take a road of four light years from Earth to Alpha Centauri and curvaríamos that space so that the distance between them through ” channel resulting “would only ten meters.
It seems that Gene Roddenberry, the creator of Star Trek, was not far astray in the series to include all those episodes of time travel. However, the Russian physicist Sergei Krasnikov unfortunately showed that, in practice, the engine Enterprise distortion would not open a path to an arbitrary place, as in the series. The road would have to be previously traced by ships will advance more slowly than light. The Enterprise is more resemble a train traveling along a pre-existing rails road moving at will. Supercivilization future perhaps could tend stars distortion between channels so that ships from traveling through them as if it were galactic railroad, or set based on wormholes connections. A network of channel distortion may be easier to create, it is only necessary to alter the existing space rather than establishing new holes that connect distant regions. Like all the methods have their drawbacks, consider an idea to communicate more with the past. It would be tachyons, hypothetical particles moving at a speed greater than that of light. But we had not said that nothing can travel faster than light? True, the normal particles as those of which we are made, protons, neutrons and electrons have to move more slowly than light. Otherwise we would violate Einstein’s postulate that all observers should be able to consider themselves at rest. And photons always travel at the speed of light through a vacuum. But imagine, as did the physical S. Tanaka, OMP Bilaniuk, VK Deshpande and ECG Sudarshan, in the early sixties, we have provided a particle traveling faster than light. The American physicist Gerald Feinberg tachyon called it, the Greek tachys , meaning “quick “. Since tachyons can overtake the light rays both the outward and return, with the help of an astronaut friend we could use tachyons to send a signal to our own past. That was the basic idea that Gregory Benford developed in his science fiction story Timescape , 1980. But would this work in reality? Tachyons can be compatible with special relativity, but the equations of general relativity lead to problems. A tachyon would have to be accompanied by gravitational as an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound waves produces a sonic boom. In 1974, using a result obtained jointly in 1972 by FC. Jones and Gott’s own solution to the Einstein field equations for a tachyon in a different context, it concludes that a tachyon should issue a cone of gravitational radiation like leaving a trail behind him. The issue would make the tachyon energy lost due to the peculiar nature of the particle is accelerated, reaching even higher speeds.
Following the view of Jones, line tachyon universe through space-time it would take the form of a wide arc. Would contemplate the two ascending branches of the arc as a tachyon and antitaquión approaching each other at a speed greater than the speed of light, moving faster and faster as they will come, eventually reaching an infinite speed to collide and annihilate each other at the top of the arc. Due to the curvature of its line of universe, tachyons would be most of the time just moving at a speed exceeding that of light, which could not be used to send energy or information faster than light beyond a distance microscopic. One day, John Wheeler of Princeton, phoned Richard Feynman and snapped, “I know why all electrons have the same mass. They are all the same electron! . ” The idea was that a positron Wheeler, the ” antiparticle “or particle of identical mass and oppositely charged evenly with electron, could be referred to as an electron traveling backward in time. Wheeler thought that all the electrons of the universe could be part of a very long line of universe will zigzag back and forth in time many times. Each “zig” would manifest as an electron, and each “zag” as a positron. The angles between zigs and zags correspond to the creation or annihilation of an electron-positron pair. For the idea to work, the number of positrons and electrons in the universe should be about the same at all times. Unfortunately, it seems that there are now many more electrons than positrons. In any case, the idea that positrons can be considered electrons traveling back in time apparently is valid and was used by Feynman in his diagrams for quantum electrodynamics, as part of a work that earned him the Nobel Prize . It would require a series of highly unlikely events for the method allowed to travel to the past. The trip to the past seems at least difficult. Extreme conditions would be required to try a project of this kind. A time machine to visit the past is not something we could build our own garage. As already stated Kip Thorne, would only be available to a future supercivilization.
But physicists are busy exploring the possibilities of time travel as it is important to study the limits of physical laws under extreme conditions. Physicists insist on noting that the universe itself was originally an accelerator of this kind. At the beginning of his scientific career, Stephen Hawking realized that certain theorems regarding singularities that exist in the center of black holes could be applicable to the early universe. Through studies of modern inflationary cosmologies we conclude that in the early universe had to have event horizons such as black holes, which separate us from distant regions, forever out of reach. A better understanding of the physical parameters associated black holes could help us understand what happened in the early universe. A similar logic applies to time machines. To check if the physical laws permit travel into the past, it is essential to explore extreme situations. A natural place for a time machine would be inside a black hole. Spacetime curvature was also extreme in the early universe; Is there also existed a time machine? If so, this could explain its origin. An article by Li-Xin Li was published in the Physical Review. It was about a problem exposed by Stephen Hawking. Quantum effects always conspire to prevent time travel. The specific example was referring to time travel through a wormhole. Waves moving between the two mouths of the hole could develop an infinite density in the quantum state, closing the time machine before it becomes operational. Li-Xin Li proposed an ingenious solution, which involved placing a reflective sphere between the two mouths to reflect the waves and stop the endless accumulation of energy. Li-Xin Li was one of the few people in the world able to perform such complex quantum calculations and, more importantly, he was someone with original ideas and, last but not least, I was interested in time travel. Li-Xin Li was a great promise and was eventually admitted to the Department of Astrophysics at Princeton. This letter reminded the professor GH Hardy received from an Indian boy named S. Ramanujan. In the envelope was some remarkable theorems that the sender had failed to demonstrate. Hardy had been Ramanujan’s letter to Littlewood, saying that those theorems had to come from a mathematician of the first rank. Thus, Ramanujan was invited to attend Trinity College. Together, Hardy and Ramanujan developed one of the most remarkable theorems of number theory, the formula to accurately estimate the number of different ways in which it is possible to obtain a given sum.
On one occasion when Ramanujan was ill, Hardy went to visit him and casually remarked: ” I came by taxi. By the way, I had a stupid number: 1,729 . “” What is going to be stupid , “replied Ramanujan. ” This is a very interesting issue: is the smallest that can be expressed in two ways as a sum of two cubes . ” Indeed, 1,729 = 13 + 123 = 103 + 93! Amazing! Maybe you could use the time travel to explain the origin of the universe. But this required pre resolve an important issue: finding a quantum state to the early universe in which time travel possible. It is assumed that the normal vacuum is zero density and pressure. But quantum mechanics tells us that empty space does not have to always be a zero vacuum energy density. In 1948, the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir observed that placed two closely spaced conductive plates, the space between them is a gap with negative energy density, that is, the amount of energy per cubic centimeter is actually less than zero. We should add energy to the system so that it is invalid. The matter with negative energy density is very special. Opens the door to solutions in general relativity ranging from wormholes engines distortion. In fact, Morris, Thome and Yurtsever designed a wormhole the fail of the Casimir effect to keep the tunnel open. To work, this tunnel must have a circumference billion kilometers. Each of the mouth should be covered by a plate of spherical Casimir, electrically charged. The plates have to be separated only few centimeters through a short tunnel connecting both mouths. Of course, building a wormhole so would be a colossal feat of engineering. The total mass at stake is two hundred million times the Sun’s. The astronauts wishing to pass through the wormhole would have to avoid being burned by radiation, blue shifted, that would be impinging on the plates and should open a trapdoor in each of them, in due course, to cross them. It is not an easy matter, but at least the Casimir vacuum creates that possibility. The gaps are also important for cosmic strings. Inside a cosmic string must be a vacuum state with a positive energy density and negative pressure in the longitudinal direction, which creates that tension along the rope becomes something like a rubber band. Within a cosmic string, therefore there is a very unusual high vacuum state energy.
Vacuum states play another key role in research on time travel; a role that also appears in studies of the early universe. Stephen Hawking believed that the vacuum state could explode when trying to enter a time machine, altering the geometry of space-time, creating a singularity and ruining our coveted trip to the past. Hawking’s ideas on this subject are based on what might happen in Misner space, a space-time that originally there is a time machine, but eventually develops a region of time travel. This region is separated from that trip that does not allow for a Cauchy horizon, as in cosmic strings based solution. We can imagine Misner space as an infinite room limited by a front wall and a rear wall. We would live between the two walls. There is a door in each. Walk out the front door would enter immediately in the same room from the back door. Misner space is, therefore, rolled on itself like a cylinder: the front and rear walls are actually two sides of the same wall. If this kind of space makes us claustrophobic, things can be even worse. We note that the two walls are approaching to each other. In fact, they move at a constant velocity and collide in future, say, one hour. It’s like being trapped in the trash compactor of The Wars (the walls inexorably approaching and we find ourselves in the middle). However, in Misner space you can escape. Simply walk out the front door; as we know, we will go into the same room for the back door. Now we will go back through the front door and so again and again. As the distance between the walls it gets smaller every time we go through the room will gain speed with respect to it. In this way we will pass through the room again and again, faster and faster. Before long, the front wall will bring us close to the speed of light. As the whole room is moving faster and faster toward us, according to special relativity we will become increasingly closer. Moreover, the walls really are closer together each time. The combination of both effects will we go through the room an infinite number of times in a finite time, as measured by our clock. Where are we going to stop? As a region of time travel, after crossing a Cauchy horizon. We will not be either in our room or in the state of Kansas, but in a very peculiar space-time. The new region will look like a sheet of paper on which the past and the future lies down on the top, and which will have rolled and glued edges. We can visit the same events repeatedly. Misner space is, of course, a bit strange, but the calculation of what happens in it is relatively simple. It is often taken as the archetype of a spacetime in which a time machine, as in the cases of wormholes and cosmic strings is created.
Physicists William Hiscock and Deborah Konkowski, of Montana State University, calculated the rate that would apply to empty space Misner. They left the quantum state corresponding to the normal vacuum and analyzed what would happen if the site where it is rolled out and its front and rear walls, glued to each other. It walls then act as Casimir parallel plates, so Konkowski Hiscock and found that exist within a vacuum enclosure Casimir with negative energy density. As we have seen, if we leave a room so the front would enter automatically by the back. And, as we go through the site again and again, it becomes progressively narrower. The distance between both walls, the perimeter of the cylinder, is each time smaller. The closer a wall of another, thinner is more negative cylinder and the vacuum energy density becomes. Finally, just before we jump to the region of time travel, this density grows exponentially into a negative infinity; which produces an infinite curvature of space, a singularity, which in turn could impede our access to the region’s journey through time. This finding encouraged Stephen Hawking to propose his conjecture Chronology protection. In other words, the fact that the laws of physics always seem to conspire to prevent travel into the past. If the quantum vacuum grows exponentially in all cases, creating a singularity when we are about to enter a region of time travel, and this other undesirable effects mentioned above come together, that kind of regions would never be accessible to us. In the movie Groundhog Day , the character played by Bill Murray relived again and again the same day, which happened to be the Groundhog Day (February 2). Every night he slept and slept until the alarm went off at 6:00. To his dismay, he discovered repeatedly that it was six in the morning of Groundhog Day and that was back where he started. Spacetime Whistler is simply ” stick “with Tuesday 6:00 6:00 Wednesday, forming a cylinder. In this space-time, when we arrived at 6:00 on Wednesday we are again at 6:00 on Tuesday. Our line of universe is a propeller that goes around the cylinder as we relive over and over again, the same day. If we lived eighty, equivalent to 29,220 days, our world line would surround the cylinder 29,220 times and, as envejeciéramos, we would find ourselves 29,219 copies that would cover from a baby to a respected elder.
Li-Xin Li found that a normal vacuum wrap cylindrical spacetime Whistler would have a density of energy and a positive pressure. Energy density and pressure would be small and, therefore, would not alter the geometry too. It would place an exponential growth in energy density. No quantum vacuum burst interfere travel in time in situations where such travel has always been present. In space-time marmot, time travel is available everywhere, so that every event can be visited again. No Cauchy horizon that separates a region of time travel to another where such travel is not possible. Still, the gap Li-Xin Li found in space-time Whistler was very similar to that Hiscock and Konkowski had found in the region of time travel Misner space. Li-Xin Li said he had observed that in a given geometry, more than one possible vacuum state, and instead of from the normal vacuum, began his calculations from the so-called Rindler vacuum. Rindler vacuum is the vacuum state measured by accelerated observers. To understand this, we must know first of all that an astronaut who run their engines spacecraft, speeding it up within a normal vacuum, photons detected. This thermal radiation is radiation that is not visible if you are not accelerated. Where do these photons? Its energy comes from the normal vacuum. The energy astronaut ‘ borrows ‘vacuum makes you see a gap with a density of less than zero energy, a vacuum state called Rindler vacuum. Rindiler vacuum has an energy density and negative pressure, which counteract exactly the positive energy density and radiation pressure observed by the same astronaut. Thus, the total energy density and the total pressure are null, as corresponds to the normal vacuum that would measure an observer not accelerated. Astronaut detected photons, not us. A vacuum in the region Rindler time travel leads to an energy density and to a negative pressure. But spacetime is wound in the time direction, add to it a density of energy and a positive pressure, such as in space-time Whistler. With the appropriate parameters, both effects nearly cancel each other, leaving a vacuum energy density and zero pressure as the normal vacuum. So that is, the front and rear walls Misner space should approach to each other to 99.9993% of the speed of light.
It was an ingenious solution. That vacuum was winding Rindler energy density and zero pressure throughout Misner space, both in the region as time travel where travel is not possible, and resolved, therefore, equations Einstein accurately. It was a self-consistent solution, as geometry, which included time travel, quantum vacuum generated adequate. And that state of vacuum by Einstein’s equations, in turn produced starting geometry. The solution was a counter-weight to the conjecture Chronology protection as it concerned the own example that had led to its formulation. The solution could be adapted to produce a state of self-consistent vacuum destination early universe model with time travel included. In a copy of Classical and Quantum Gravity appeared a new article by Michael J. Cassidy, a student of Stephen Hawking, in which showed that there had to be a state of vacuum Misner space that has zero density and pressure in all points. Cassidy had reached this conclusion by reasoning about the gap around a cosmic string. I did not know what state it was, but merely stated that there was bound to be different and they had used Hiscock and Konkowski. Moreover, this state appeared when the front and rear walls are approaching each other to 99.9993% of the speed of light. But time travel, because of its complexity, is a project for a supercivilization. The journey to the future requires a civilization that is already used to interstellar travel. The trip back would be within reach of a civilization able to control the sources of energy of an entire galaxy. Maybe there’s a billion habitable planets in our own. A supercivilization that had colonized the entire galaxy population could have a billion times greater than the Earth, but it would be a billion times less frequent than any other who are confined to their home planet or otherwise dominate the set of intelligent observers of the universe. And we should belong to it. We are intelligent observers, conscious beings endowed with abstract reasoning. To our knowledge, our species is the first on Earth that can be qualified as well. It is assumed that chimpanzees, porpoises, cockroaches or bacteria does not raise questions as “How long will my species? “.
As intelligent observers, our location in the universe has to be special in the sense of belonging to the subset of living quarters. Princeton Professor Robert Dicke reasoned that, as intelligent observers would probably we found ourselves about ten billion years of the Big Bang. If less time has elapsed, the stars could not have produced the carbon required to produce from bacteria to human. And if more had elapsed, the stars would have been consumed and the universe would be far more inhospitable. The application supports the Copernican principle that we are in a special time in our universe, precisely because we are intelligent observers. But among these intelligent observers, we should not be special. It is hoped, therefore, that we are randomly placed in the chronological list of all intelligent observers of our universe. Moreover, we should think that we belong to an age of the universe in which intelligent observers of the population is high, since most of them live at the time. If intelligent civilizations will last forever, then almost all intelligent observers would live in the distant future, after the star had been consumed. This does not mean you can not be intelligent life in the future, but simply that a significant percentage of all intelligent life takes place in the present time of combustion of the stars, when our universe is habitable. There could be some form of intelligent life in the distant future, but surely would be rare. Otherwise, it is likely that one of them might be. Similarly, the Copernican principle does not imply that there can be supercivilizations but only that would be uncommon. During a meal at Los Alamos in 1950, noted physicist Enrico Fermi posed a famous question about aliens: “Where are they? ‘. According to the Copernican principle, a significant fraction of all intelligent observers of the universe must still stay on his home planet, like us. If it were not so, we would be special. Just simple. Who opine that space colonization should be a common occurrence, one would have to ask: “Why I am not a space settler?”. Anyone who thinks that the most intelligent observers of the universe are aware computers themselves or created beings through genetic engineering, it should be questioned: “Why I am not a smart computer or be artificially created?”. Or maybe you are! Our universe is a big place, perhaps infinite, and any intelligent species could be much more successful than ours. But most possibly without. The Copernican principle means you will probably belong to an intelligent species that currently have a population above average. This is for the same reason that we may have been born in a country with a population above average. For the simple reason that most intelligent observers will be in that case. Thus, in population terms, it is likely to be one of our largest and most successful intelligent species.
The percentage of civilizations like ours that eventually become supercivilizations with a huge population must be extremely small. Otherwise, the chances are that someone perteneciésemos. A supercivilization be able to do extraordinary things, but it is unlikely that our reach that level. Some intelligent species could develop time travel to visit the distant future or the past, but most likely not. The time travel is difficult. If it were available to most intelligent observers of the universe, but not ours, we would be special. This does not mean that time travel is impossible, but in the best case, it would be rare. As Darwin noted, most species do not reach their full potential. Some fish lay up to a million eggs, but most of them do not become adults. Similarly, most other species do not let that happen to you. Some of the major extinctions on Earth have come away 90% of the species at that time. Things usually do not work as well as they could reasonably do. This is precisely the reason why many people would like to travel back in time to change things that were not as they should be, from saving a loved one to eliminate before Hitler came to power. Life is often tragic. Intelligence offers the possibility of reaching an enormous power and longevity, but that potential will only be realized rarely. Otherwise our situation would be very unusual. Intelligent life has, in principle, great potential. But, being so complex, it is fragile in practice. We have accumulated a history of only two hundred thousand years on a tiny planet lost in this gigantic universe already has behind him thirteen billion years. We are not too powerful; only we control energy sources are just tiny compared to our sun. And apparently, we can not boast a long pass longevity. But in that short period we have also achieved something extraordinary.We have deciphered many things about the universe and the laws of physics. We know that the universe was much smaller in the past in relation to its current size; we have some ideas about how galaxies formed and how the Earth got here; and we are smart enough to have figured out what our position in the cosmos. That level of knowledge is remarkable, if we can understand these things, a reasonable percentage of all intelligent observers also will understand. But it is precisely in terms of knowledge, rather than longevity or power, in which one would expect an intelligent observer stand out. The ability to ask questions seems to bring some skill to answer them. But this premise does not give us more time. This is the essence of the report from the future. Something we should know about the time is that we have very little. ” Humanity, do not waste time, You have very little. That is the secret of the time traveler . “
- Richard Gott – The Time Travel
- Margaret Cheney – Tesla Man out of Time
- David Deutsch – Quantum Physics travel through Time
- Tim Swartz – The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla
- John Titor – John Titor A Time Traveler’s Tale
- Adolfo Perez Agusti – HG Wells and the Time Machine
Join our list
Subscribe to our mailing list and get interesting stuff and updates to your email inbox.