Home » Astronaut’s DNA No Longer Matches His Identical Twin’s After Year Spent in Space, NASA Finds

Astronaut’s DNA No Longer Matches His Identical Twin’s After Year Spent in Space, NASA Finds

by Alien UFO Sightings
0 comment

Spending a year in space not only changes your outlook, it transforms your gene expression.

Preliminary results from NASA’s Twins Study reveal that 7% of astronaut Scott Kelly’s genetic expression — how his genes function within cells — did not return to baseline after his return to Earth two years ago.

The study looks at what happened to Kelly before, during and after he spent one year aboard the International Space Station through an extensive comparison with his identical twin, Mark, who remained on Earth.

Though Scott Kelly’s genetic expression changed, he and Mark are still identical. Changes in gene expression are how the human body reacts to the environment. Kelly’s transformation suggests longer-term alterations related to at least five biological pathways and functions.

‘Space genes’

The newest preliminary results from this unique study of Kelly, now retired from NASA, were released at the 2018 Investigator’s Workshop for NASA’s Human Research Program in January. Last year, NASA published its first round of preliminary results at the 2017 Investigator’s Workshop. Overall, the 2018 findings corroborated those from 2017, with some additions.

To track physical changes caused by time in space, scientists measured Kelly’s metabolites (necessary for maintaining life), cytokines (secreted by immune system cells) and proteins (workhorses within each cell) before, during and after his mission. The researchers learned that spaceflight is associated with oxygen-deprivation stress, increased inflammation and dramatic nutrient shifts that affect gene expression.

In particular, Chris Mason of Weill Cornell Medicine reported on the activation of Kelly’s “space genes” while confirming the results of his separate NASA study, published last year.

To better understand the genetic dynamics of each twin, Mason and his team focused on chemical changes in RNA and DNA.

Although 93% of Kelly’s genetic expression returned to normal once he returned to Earth, a subset of several hundred “space genes” remained disrupted. Some of these alterations, found only after spaceflight, are thought to be caused by the stresses of space travel.

This change of gene expression is very minimal, according to NASA.

Yet as genes turn on and off, change in the function of cells may occur.

Looking to Mars

Mason’s work shows that one of the most important changes to Kelly’s cells was hypoxia, or a deficient amount of tissue oxygenation, probably due to a lack of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide. Possible damage to mitochondria, the “power plants of cells,” also occurred in Kelly’s cells, as indicated by mitochondrial stress and increased levels of mitochondria in the blood.

Mason’s team also saw changes in the length of Kelly’s telomeres, caps at the end of chromosomes that are considered a marker of biological aging. First, there was a significant increase in average length while he was in space, and then there was a decrease in length within about 48 hours of his landing on Earth that stabilized to nearly preflight levels. Scientists believe that these telomere changes, along with the DNA damage and DNA repair measured in Kelly’s cells, were caused by both radiation and calorie restrictions.

Additionally, the team found changes in Kelly’s collagen, blood clotting and bone formation due, most likely, to fluid shifts and zero gravity. The researchers discovered hyperactive immune activity as well, thought to be the result of his radically different environment: space.

The Twins Study helps NASA gain insight into what happens to the human body in space beyond the usual six-month International Space Station missions previously studied in other astronauts. Ten groups of researchers, including Mason’s team, are looking at a wide variety of information about the Kelly twins’ health, including how gut bacteria, bones and the immune system might be affected by living off planet.

Kelly’s one-year mission is a scientific stepping stone to a planned three-year mission to Mars, NASA said. Research into how the human body adjusts to weightlessness, isolation, radiation and the stress of long-duration spaceflight is needed before astronauts are sent on journeys that would triple the time humans have spent in space so far.

Correction: A previous version of this article and headline from CNN incorrectly stated that Scott Kelley’s “DNA” and “genes” had changed. In fact, his gene expression has changed. The headline has been changed and the story has been updated throughout. Here’s an editor’s note issued by NASA on Thursday:

“Editor’s note: NASA issued the following statement updating this article on March 15, 2018:

Mark and Scott Kelly are still identical twins; Scott’s DNA did not fundamentally change. What researchers did observe are changes in gene expression, which is how your body reacts to your environment. This likely is within the range for humans under stress, such as mountain climbing or SCUBA diving.

The change related to only 7 percent of the gene expression that changed during spaceflight that had not returned to preflight after six months on Earth. This change of gene expression is very minimal. We are at the beginning of our understanding of how spaceflight affects the molecular level of the human body. NASA and the other researchers collaborating on these studies expect to announce more comprehensive results on the twins studies this summer.”

Do you believe in alien life and/or UFOs? Follow us on FACEBOOK, TWITTERINSTAGRAM! 

 

Source ktla.com

  • Bitcoin
  • Ethereum
  • Xrp
  • Bitcoin cash
  • Bitcoin sv
  • Litecoin
  • Tether
  • Binance coin
  • Tezos
  • Cardano
  • Dash
  • Monero
  • Stellar
  • Ethereum classic
Scan to Donate Bitcoin to bc1qplharv5kz9u04fazvfcwg55zpzx3hk2se7uj64

Donate Bitcoin to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Bitcoin

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Ethereum to 0x5C1fbd512386420156aBF7C38Fa80e402DE42e96

Donate Ethereum to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Ethereum

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Xrp to r4dXn7DVK1V9AM99jqNdecZG5Mh4hXsnSk

Donate Xrp to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Xrp

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Bitcoin cash to qrha85n6253vpcyew0yn9fgj38j6asgdkc0caed3cm

Donate Bitcoin cash to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Bitcoin cash

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Bitcoin sv to 1LNrCdVkHwi2Xrf5br9YUF63ACW5uUg19R

Donate Bitcoin sv to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Bitcoin sv

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Litecoin to LfVdNCJtm4qRLiQZkC2RXhJpCemaR83JvL

Donate Litecoin to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Litecoin

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Tether to 0x5C1fbd512386420156aBF7C38Fa80e402DE42e96

Donate Tether to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Tether

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Binance coin to bnb1qv88k2ln6wgsvh2k58uramg642j6zrhs864znz

Donate Binance coin to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Binance coin

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Tezos to tz1bjRzegVEDPTNjXGPCrTDcpbWr44puKFgZ

Donate Tezos to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Tezos

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Cardano to Ae2tdPwUPEZBpBkPdrULnszfNYCwocSH7maBFJHwpW3WeReVWE5rY9e4tkk

Donate Cardano to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Cardano

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Dash to XgQjywvEGtAjpKTqNUwG7Yi2e6ZVebggqW

Donate Dash to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Dash

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Monero to 46PbxkRRNFxXcW9S5T9BJm4xHDvwKUTqRT2Lcmc6JeVHYuZa6TT5NhPN7bMyxwLxaFazGYB1qyFbUGhVT9Ty8wfpMNCwuQD

Donate Monero to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Monero

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Stellar to GAIENC3BCJQMFNWQSYWOUNYPWXWZHWY4XDLHRKO6VMCLFBVROZSVXBKB

Donate Stellar to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Stellar

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings
Scan to Donate Ethereum classic to 0x98257f4D233c42f2e0b30cECF0a8e4700D51CB51

Donate Ethereum classic to Alien UFO Sightings

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Ethereum classic

Tag/Note:- Alien UFO Sightings

CRYPTO CARD WITH UP TO 5% CASH 💰 BACK

PLUS, $50 FREE WHEN YOU STAKE 50 MCO COINS AND (DEPENDING ON THE CARD) FREE SPOTIFY, NETFLIX AND AMAZON PRIME EVERY MONTH!!

Join our list

Subscribe to our mailing list and get interesting stuff and updates to your email inbox.

Thank you for subscribing.

Something went wrong.

YOU MAY ALSO LIKE:  THE UNIVERSE COULD BE ONE GIANT ALIEN CLAIMS SCIENTIST

You may also like

Leave a Reply

Astronaut’s DNA No Longer Matches His Identical Twin’s After Year Spent in Space, NASA Finds

 
Share
%d bloggers like this: