The idea that there are other universes around us is quite common in today’s technological world and researchers are using all the possible means to find something substantial in this regard. It has always been a popular topic of debate in scientific gatherings. Similarly, the general public is also quite determined to know what existed before the Big Bang.
The latest study suggests that theoretical physicists may have an answer for all these queries. According to the study published in the journal ‘arXiv’, there were other universes before ours and they too had black holes. The team of researchers comprising of Roger Penrose, Krzystof Meissner, and Daniel An argued for a modified version of Big Bang.
Penrose is a Prominent Mathematical Physicist at the Oxford University who had the privilege of working with Stephen Hawking as his collaborator. Likewise, Meissner is a Theoretical Physicist at the University of Warsaw while An is a Mathematician at the Maritime College of the State University of New York.
According to their theory, universes bubble up and expand before dying. This sequence of events leaves behind the traces of the black holes in the coming universes. They told the world that these traces can be detected in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) of our universe. This radiation is a remnant of the violent birth of our universe.
These researchers took help from a famous theory of Hawking which indicates that black holes lose their mass and energy slowly over time. Hawking claimed that the Protons and Gravitons, which are massless particles, form a radiation which is responsible for this loss. An explained how these traces were transferred from one eon to another by saying,
“If the universe goes on and on and the black holes gobble up everything, at a certain point, we’re only going to have black holes. If the Hawking radiation exists, then what’s going to happen is that these black holes will gradually, gradually shrink. At a certain point, those black holes would disintegrate entirely leaving the universe a massless soup of photons and gravitons. The thing about this period of time is that massless gravitons and photons don’t really experience time or space.”
The impact of space and time, on these massless particles, is quite different to what we experience in our everyday lives. The Einstein’s theory of relativity indicates that the objects having mass tends to move slower through time as they approach the speed of light. Consequently, distances are skewed for them. On the other hand, massless objects don’t feel time or distance at all because they themselves move at the speed of light. An referred to that during his interview and said,
“So, a universe filled with only gravitons or photons will not have any sense of what is time or what is space.”
A lot of scientists including Penrose argue that the vast, post-black-hole universe starts resembling the ultra-compressed version which was observed right before the Big Bang. The fact that there is no time and distance at that point of time adds significant strength to these claims. An mentioned that the process restarts itself once the Big Bang is over. This explanation suggests that none of the black holes from the previous universe is transferred to its successor. If it is true, how can we find traces of the ancient black holes in the CMB? Penrose provided the solution to this ambiguity. He told the world that the traces are of the energy that was spent by these black holes for billions of years. He told Live Science about that in the following words:
“It’s not the black hole’s singularity,” or it’s actual, physical body but the… entire Hawking radiation of the hole throughout its history.”
In simpler words, it means that all the dissolving of the black hole left a mark, in the background radiation frequencies of space, which has the capability to survive the destruction of a universe. If physicists are successful in locating that mark, it can be concluded that the CCC vision of the universe is at least not wrong, even if it needs some additional factors to verify its existence.
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